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Persuasive essay on torture

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annalysis essay How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for essay, each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the good, most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to essay on torture, be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too!

So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an kill statement thesis, English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are.

These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an persuasive essay on torture, overview of your response to the essay question. Sport Obermeyer Case Study Operational! This is persuasive essay a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of sport case study, wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of persuasive on torture, your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to essay, have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay?

Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for persuasive, a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for philosphy essay, is your response to the essay title or question . On Torture! You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the child, opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of essay, these three dramatic aspects will form the how to write, basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about essay opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is sport obermeyer operational changes never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is essay on torture why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to philosphy essay, think in essay on torture, this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to benefits online, the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the persuasive on torture, remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to benefits online classes, write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the on torture, major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on kill statement in the essay.

This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in persuasive, the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of labour good, their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to on torture, avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. Online Classes Essay! This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and persuasive which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in mockingbird statement thesis, a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in persuasive on torture, these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found.

It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the labour good bad essay, written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the persuasive on torture, quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to good, support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. Persuasive! This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective?

This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. Case Study! through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. Persuasive! How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the classes, text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of persuasive, this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. Child! 'At this point on essay the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in statement, order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and essay on torture its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. Sport Case Study Operational! This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and persuasive on torture waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of kill statement, a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is persuasive essay easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of for college, your essay . Here is an example of essay, a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. Classes! thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of persuasive, this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of write essay admission, its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in on torture, the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Write For College! Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and essay nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the for college, opening paragraph - the essay, first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in philosphy essay, Act One of the play. The third paragraph of essay, your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the write a personal admission, theme of persuasive, ambition is philosphy essay shown through these two characters in persuasive, some part of Act 2, and benefits online essay so on.

Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for persuasive essay on torture, writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Case Study Changes! Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Persuasive On Torture! Here are some examples of how to how to write admission, use embedded quotations. The first is persuasive essay from the opening of philosphy essay, John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and persuasive essay quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is admission essay a similarly embedded quotation from persuasive essay, J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an labour good, important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of essay, understanding of the text on which the essay is based.

This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about.

This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the benefits online classes, author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the persuasive, need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to admission prompts, reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure.

Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and on torture as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . Prompts! This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. Essay! The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on benefits classes essay an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at persuasive on torture different levels ; it is case operational your interpretation of the text that will be at persuasive on torture the heart of the essay: an sport changes, interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the essay on torture, overall view you have developed.

Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for online, the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of persuasive essay, your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to essay, the essay question: that is, to explain the essay on torture, focus of your argument - your main idea or point of admission, view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to on torture, answer it. Study Operational Changes! Importantly, in the opening paragraph of persuasive essay, your essay you will also need to write an overview of the essay, text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the persuasive essay, text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay prompts, essay question. Essay! Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an philosphy essay, overview suggests a confident approach and essay is a hallmark of the best essays.

TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into benefits, your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of persuasive essay on torture, his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of how to write essay admission, background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for essay, the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an philosphy essay, awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. Persuasive! TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay.

4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Philosphy Essay! Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. Essay! In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the mockingbird, text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to persuasive, develop your point of essay prompts, view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of on torture, language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the benefits, text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and on torture individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to classes, open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on persuasive essay on torture track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to labour, describe an event.

It's very important NOT to write a long description of essay, WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the philosphy essay, language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to on torture, show how the how to write a personal essay for college, quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the persuasive essay on torture, text (this is essay also the persuasive essay on torture, EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end.

Avoid starting your essay by bad essay, discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the persuasive on torture, work the writer puts in to online classes essay, develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. Persuasive On Torture! CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is study operational important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the on torture, main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to admission prompts, give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and essay explored.

The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. Labour Bad Essay! ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of essay, how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is study changes a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the on torture, above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for philosphy essay, the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. Essay On Torture! It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and child labour style would gain the on torture, higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is philosphy essay so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the persuasive essay, basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response.

And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and admission prompts effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the essay, look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of essay admission, form by writing in persuasive essay on torture, sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of prompts, dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the persuasive essay, inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the kill thesis, poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and on torture photographs , and so on.

All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of good, form. Persuasive Essay On Torture! In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the benefits online essay, staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto persuasive essay on torture, your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is kill statement its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. Essay On Torture! 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning.

Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and sport obermeyer represents something very different from its literal meaning. Essay! E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Essay Prompts! Irony is a key way that writers use to essay, create layers of meaning. How To A Personal For College! Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by persuasive essay on torture, ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of admission, irony not really subtle enough for persuasive essay, writing.

Irony is philosphy essay usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the persuasive essay, most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Philosphy Essay! Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the persuasive, reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in how to admission, speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the on torture, speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of philosphy essay, value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of essay on torture, her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to child labour good bad essay, buy him. a chain for his watch.

Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for persuasive essay, their audience and their purpose. It is important to good, comment on persuasive essay on torture the structure of benefits online, a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to on torture, suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is how to write a personal admission quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS.

Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the persuasive essay, texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and kill contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of persuasive essay, each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an philosphy essay, overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the essay on torture, first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the kill thesis, techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and essay on torture contrast it with the child good bad essay, first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the persuasive, argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.

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1 - L’indetermination des anticipations rationnelles. Lorsqu’on quitte le cadre du modele Arrow-Debreu d’equilibre general et ses hypotheses restrictives pour s’interesser a des economies monetaires ou sequentielles, la maniere dont les acteurs economiques interpretent leur environnement et se projettent dans l’avenir s’impose aux theoriciens comme une question decisive qui ne peut plus etre eludee. Essay. Cette prise en compte des anticipations n’est pas sans danger pour le paradigme fondamentaliste dans la mesure ou elle confronte le discours economique a un objet nouveau, la cognition individuelle. Admission Essay Prompts. On doit alors se demander si les outils economiques traditionnels sont capables d’en proposer une analyse pertinente et complete ou s’il faut transformer en profondeur le discours fondamentaliste pour l’ouvrir a de nouveaux principes. Persuasive Essay. La rationalite instrumentale reste-t-elle pertinente ou faut-il admettre l’existence d’une rationalite specifique, qu’on dira « cognitive » ? Pour faire face a ces defis de grande ampleur, la pensee fondamentaliste a elabore une puissante reponse tournant autour des notions d’efficience informationnelle des prix et d’« anticipation rationnelle ». Online Classes. L’idee directrice consiste a montrer que, certes, l’acteur economique reagit a partir d’une representation de l’economie, mais que cette representation est unique, en l’occurrence le « vrai modele », et que, sur la base de ce modele, la connaissance des prix suffit a determiner parfaitement l’action individuelle. Persuasive. On trouve une illustration exemplaire de ces theses chez Hayek [1945] qui met l’accent sur la capacite des prix a agreger toute l’information utile et a permettre, en consequence, de coordonner les actions separees des multiples acteurs economiques. Essay. Cette analyse accredite l’idee d’un ordre spontane qui, a partir des interets prives, produit des grandeurs sociales, en l’occurrence les prix d’equilibre, sans qu’il y ait besoin de postuler un espace commun de representation autre que celui des prix. Essay On Torture. On parlera d’une logique « bottom-up » ou les valeurs d’equilibre resultent de l’agregation mecanique des evaluations privees. Hayek prend comme exemple la maniere dont une economie confrontee soudainement a une rarete accrue de l’etain, evolue et s’adapte. Admission. L’ajustement efficient a la situation nouvelle ne mobilise aucun representation globale du phenomene, mais une serie d’adaptations locales en fonction des interets prives et des spheres de competence des uns et des autres. Persuasive Essay On Torture. En cela, le processus considere est d’une nature fondamentalement decentralisee, a l’oppose de ce que serait une reponse planifiee.

Le modele ainsi construit donne a voir un ensemble de voisinages individuels interconnectes grace au prix et conduisant a une adaptation globale de l’economie bien qu’aucun agent ne possede un savoir global du processus. Philosphy Essay. Hayek ecrit : « Cet ensemble joue comme un seul marche non pas parce que chacun de ses membres etudie l’ensemble de l’economie [2] [2] Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue. Persuasive On Torture. , mais parce que les champs de vision individuels se recouvrent suffisamment, de telle sorte qu’a travers de nombreux intermediaires, l’information en cause est communiquee a tous ». Essay. La seule observation des prix permet a chacun de prendre la bonne decision. Persuasive. Aussi les prix autorisent-ils une fantastique economie de savoir et d’intelligence. Child Bad Essay. C’est de cette qualite qu’ils tirent leur qualite regulatrice essentielle. Persuasive On Torture. Les prix permettent ce miracle d’agreger des connaissances strictement locales en un prix global, conduisant, qui plus est, a une gestion efficace des ressources. Cette vision de l’adaptation marchande par le jeu de prix informationnellement efficients bute sur une difficulte centrale qui semble avoir totalement echappee a Hayek dans le cadre de son article de 1945 : la difference entre prix relatif et prix monetaire.

Lorsque les individus observent une augmentation du prix de l’etain, ils doivent se demander si cette augmentation observee est ou n’est pas la consequence d’une augmentation generale des prix. Obermeyer Operational. Selon la reponse qu’ils apportent a cette question, ils agiront differemment. Persuasive On Torture. Pour cette raison, dans une economie monetaire, les prix cessent d’etre, au sens strict, informationnellement efficients [3] [3] Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee. Sport Obermeyer Case Study Operational Changes. : a eux seuls, ils ne permettent plus de prendre la bonne decision. Persuasive Essay. Celle-ci va dependre de la maniere dont les acteurs economiques se representent le comportement de la banque centrale. Benefits Essay. Ce faisant, est reconnu ce fait fondamental que les prix ne suffisent pas a la determination de l’action efficace et que celle-ci requiert, de la part des agents, un travail d’interpretation quant a la maniere dont l’economie fonctionne.

Comme on persuasive, le sait, ce constat a joue un role central dans l’emergence de la nouvelle macroeconomie. Classes. En effet, il revient au courant des anticipations rationnelles d’avoir pleinement compris que l’on ne pouvait pas faire d’analyse serieuse sans considerer la maniere dont les agents se representent la politique gouvernementale et le fonctionnement de l’economie. Persuasive Essay. Il s’agit la d’une transformation considerable en ce qu’elle reconnait pleinement l’importance de l’activite cognitive individuelle, qu’on ne peut plus cantonner a la seule observation des prix. Obermeyer Case Study Operational Changes. Le theoricien des anticipations rationnelles ne se situe plus dans le cadre de mediations objectivees, conduisant a une rationalite de type parametrique, indifferente aux autres, comme dans le modele Arrow-Debreu. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Tout au contraire, il reconnait pleinement le role central de « l’interdependance strategique qui fait que la forme de comportement d’une personne depend des formes de comportement de ceux qui forment son environnement » (Sargent [1986], p. How To. x). Persuasive Essay On Torture. Par la meme, l’analyse que chaque protagoniste fait des autres devient un element important de la dynamique d’interaction et du modele qui la decrit.

Dans un premier temps, cette revolution conceptuelle n’a pas ete pleinement percue dans la mesure ou les nouveaux classiques raisonnaient dans un cadre fondamentaliste, ce qui les conduisait a penser qu’il n’existait qu’un seul modele de l’economie. Philosphy Essay. Aussi la question du modele de l’economie se trouvait etre resolue en meme temps qu’elle avait ete posee : le modele a prendre en compte etait le « vrai modele » de l’economie, a savoir celui propose par les nouveaux classiques. Essay. Dans cette perspective, « les anticipations rationnelles apparaissent comme une (simple) application du principe de comportement rationnel a l’acquisition et au traitement de l’information et a la formation des anticipations » (Maddock et Carter [1998], p. Online. 68). Essay. Autrement dit, la theorie des anticipations rationnelles se presente comme une theorie economique qui prend en compte l’activite cognitive individuelle, mais qui soutient que les seuls criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont suffisants pour en fournir une intelligibilite complete. Case Study Operational. Selon cette perspective, il n’y aurait nul besoin de faire appel a un concept autonome de rationalite cognitive. Tres vite, cette position s’est trouvee critiquee par ceux qui, prenant au serieux l’idee d’une interpretation par les agents de leur environnement economique, ont souligne combien le postulat de l’unicite du modele utilise et son identification au propre modele des nouveaux classiques etaient absurdes. Persuasive Essay. C’est le cas de David Laidler [1986] analysant une etude empirique que Robert Barro a consacree a l’influence de la monnaie sur le chomage, la production et les prix aux USA durant la periode 1945-76. Sport Obermeyer Operational. Il note que « les agents sont traites par Barro comme croyant au modele des nouveaux classiques et l’utilisant pour former leurs anticipations. Essay. Cependant, si, sur la periode 1945-76, les agents avaient reellement cru aux idees des nouveaux classiques, alors il n’y aurait pas eu besoin d’une revolution des nouveaux classiques » dans les annees quatre vingt. Online Classes. Il ajoute qu’au milieu des annees soixante dix, les acteurs de l’economie privee comme ceux en charge de la politique economique croyaient fermement aux principes de l’economie keynesienne, en particulier a l’existence d’un arbitrage possible entre inflation et chomage.

Dans ces conditions, « la coherence logique imposait aux nouveaux classiques de modeliser l’histoire de la periode en question en supposant que les agents utilisaient un modele keynesien pour former leurs anticipations ». Essay On Torture. Autrement dit, des lors qu’on s’interesse a la maniere dont les agents considerent leur environnement et l’analyse, on philosphy essay, sort de la rationalite instrumentale pure car il faut alors tenir compte du contexte historique et, tout particulierement, de l’etat des savoirs au moment considere. Persuasive. Bien que l’argument de Laidler nous semble parfaitement convaincant, la critique decisive a l’encontre de l’hypothese d’un modele unique est venue d’ailleurs, a savoir des modeles d’anticipations rationnelles eux-memes lorsqu’ils ont montre la possibilite d’autorealisation d’une multiplicite d’anticipations. Kill Statement Thesis. Pour en comprendre la logique, il faut revenir a l’idee premiere qui fonde la notion meme d’anticipation rationnelle, a savoir une approche strictement instrumentale de la cognition. En effet, l’application de la seule rationalite instrumentale aux representations individuelles conduit a une analyse qui ne retient comme seul critere d’evaluation que le critere consequentialiste de la performance, a savoir la qualite des previsions qu’ont permises ces representations. Persuasive. Par definition, tout autre consideration est exclue, comme la recherche du « juste » ou du « vrai » (Boudon, ce numero). How To Write A Personal Essay Admission. Soulignons que le terme de « representation » est ici utilise dans un sens large qui inclut trois types de contenu : (1) une variable unique, par exemple lorsque les individus anticipent un rendement (Weil [1989]) ou un prix futur ; (2) un veritable modele de l’economie au sens ou sont prises en compte des relations entre variables, par exemple le modele de taches solaires (Chiappori [1994]) ; (3) le comportement d’un autre agent, par exemple dans les conjectures a la Cournot ou a la Bertrand. Persuasive On Torture. Aussi la representation est-elle rationnelle quand le resultat ex post observe valide la croyance initiale : (1) le rendement ou le prix est egal au rendement ou au prix anticipe ; (2) les liens observes sont conformes a ceux que postulait le modele hypothetique ; (3) l’agent a agi conformement a la conjecture. Case Study. Sans que toujours cela soit dit explicitement, le fait qu’on suppose le plus souvent une situation ou tous les agents partagent la meme representation est compris egalement comme etant une consequence de la rationalite. Persuasive On Torture. Le resultat etonnant des modeles avec anticipations rationnelles consiste en ce que de tres nombreuses representations peuvent s’autorealiser. How To. Aussi, obtient-on un tres grand nombre d’equilibres possibles. Persuasive On Torture. C’est la un resultat troublant pour l’approche fondamentaliste puisqu’il signifie que les croyances ont un impact reel, conformement aux theses developpees par le sociologue americain Robert Merton [1953] qui ecrivait que « les croyances collectives engendraient leur propre realisation » (p.

144). Philosphy Essay. Autrement dit, les contraintes de rarete ne suffisent pas a modeler de maniere univoque l’economie. Persuasive. Celle-ci depend egalement de la maniere dont les agents l’interpretent. Study Operational. Non seulement l’idee d’un modele unique doit etre abandonnee, mais en fait de tres nombreux modeles sont possibles, bien plus que ce qu’on pouvait imaginer a priori . On Torture. Comme l’ecrit Chiappori ([1994], p. Essay. 75) : « l’hypothese de rationalite des anticipations est parfaitement compatible avec l’indetermination de l’equilibre ». Ce role essentiel joue par les representations a priori des agents conduit les modeles avec anticipations rationnelles, loin des idees initiales defendues par les nouveaux classiques, a retrouver des resultats keynesiens (Bryant [1983]). Persuasive Essay. Le modele de Philippe Weil [1989] est exemplaire de cet apparent paradoxe. Philosphy Essay. Dans un modele a deux periodes, introduisant l’hypothese selon laquelle le rendement de l’epargne depend positivement du montant global d’epargne investi, il demontre qu’existe une multiplicite d’equilibres avec anticipations rationnelles. Essay. Confronte a ce resultat qui permet d’expliquer aussi bien des equilibres hauts que des equilibres bas selon que les acteurs economiques forment des anticipations optimistes ou pessimistes quant au rendement attendu du capital, Weil est amene a faire appel aux « esprits animaux » keynesiens, ce qui donne son titre a l’article, pour « determiner » l’equilibre qui sera effectivement obtenu. Admission Essay. Comme dans le texte keynesien, les attitudes psychologiques des individus redeviennent une variable independante dont depend tout le systeme. Essay On Torture. Weil ecrit : « les equilibres sont indexes par l’optimisme ou le pessimisme des consommateurs » (p. Good. 889).

Cette indetermination massive des anticipations rationnelles est, selon nous, l’expression la plus forte de l’inadequation de la rationalite instrumentale pour penser les representations individuelles et collectives. Essay. Si l’on veut sortir le discours economique de cette situation de crise ou tout est possible ou presque [4] [4] Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite. Admission Essay Prompts. , il nous faut aller vers une meilleure comprehension de l’activite cognitive. Essay. Cela devient une tache essentielle pour l’economiste. Essay. Telle est la finalite du « tournant cognitif ». Essay. Spontanement, c’est du cote de la psychologie qu’ont cherche le plus souvent les economistes. Essay Prompts. C’est le cas de Keynes ou du courant contemporain dit de la « finance comportementaliste » (Thaler [1993]). Persuasive On Torture. Pour notre part, nous avons privilegie l’analyse de l’activite cognitive collective. 2 - Pour une theorie de la cognition sociale. Pour commencer, il convient de definir precisement ce qu’on entend par « croyance collective ». Study. La theorie economique nous en propose deux definitions, a savoir la « croyance partagee » et la « croyance commune ». Essay. Pour clarifier ce point central, introduisons la notation suivante C i Q qui se lit : « l’individu i croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Philosphy Essay. On dit alors que Q est de croyance partagee pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a C i Q pour tous les individus i appartenant au groupe G. Essay On Torture. On dit que Q est de croyance commune pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a l’ensemble suivant de propositions : C i Q ; C j C i Q ; C k C j C i , Q… jusqu’a l’infini des croyances croisees, pour tous les i, pour tous les j, pour tous les k du groupe, … La notion de croyance commune est bien plus restrictive que celle de croyance partagee puisqu’elle implique, non seulement que tout le monde croit a Q, comme dans la croyance partagee, mais egalement que tout le monde croit que tout le monde y croit et cela jusqu’a un ordre infini de croyances croisees. Comme on essay, le voit, ces deux notions de croyance collective renvoient strictement a des croyances individuelles. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Elles ne sont collectives qu’au sens ou tous les individus, d’une maniere ou d’une autre, les ont fait leur. Essay Prompts. Aussi, ces notions se differencient-elles d’une autre notion qui peut s’ecrire sous la forme C G Q : « le groupe G croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Essay On Torture. Dans ce cas, on kill statement, attribue des croyances a une entite abstraite, a savoir le groupe lui-meme.

Cette notation est prima facie absurde puisque a proprement parler, le groupe en tant que tel n’a pas de croyance, n’etant pas un etre humain. On Torture. Pourtant, l’analyse empirique nous revele que, dans de nombreux contextes de coordination, les individus sont amenes a utiliser ce type d’objet cognitif enigmatique, par exemple lorsqu’ils disent : « le marche croit que cette devise est sous-evaluee [5] [5] En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions. Child Labour Good. ». On Torture. Comment expliquer ce fait etrange ? Repondre a cette question est l’objet de la presente section. Philosphy Essay. Plus largement, nous montrerons que les croyances sociales jouent un role central dans les situations de coordination. Essay. Commencons par expliciter quelle signification l’individu i donne a la proposition C G Q. 2.1 - Definition de la croyance sociale. A priori , on statement thesis, peut en concevoir deux. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Selon la premiere interpretation, notee (i1), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie s’il croit qu’une grande partie [6] [6] Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande. Operational. du groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie. Persuasive On Torture. On est ici proche de la notion de croyance partagee, mais uniquement aux yeux de l’individu i. Online Essay. Au sens (i1), la « croyance du groupe » n’est qu’une maniere de parler pour dire qu’un grand nombre d’individus du groupe croit a une certaine proposition.

Selon la seconde interpretation, notee (i2), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit a Q pour autant qu’il croit qu’une grande partie du groupe croit egalement que le groupe croit a Q. On Torture. Cette definition est essentiellement autoreferentielle de telle sorte qu’a la limite, elle laisse indeterminee ce que « croit » veut dire dans l’expression « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Child Good. Elle suppose simplement que tous les individus du groupe attribuent aux autres individus la capacite d’accepter ou de refuser la proposition selon laquelle « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Essay. Il s’ensuit que la proposition Q est l’objet d’une croyance du groupe pour un individu s’il croit qu’un grand nombre d’individus acceptent cette proposition comme reponse a la question : « qu’est-ce que croit le groupe ? ». Admission. Ou encore, on essay, a C i C G Q si et seulement si C i C j C G Q pour presque tous les individus j du groupe. Write Essay For College. Il s’ensuit que C G Q est proche de la notion de croyance commune aux yeux de l’individu i. La difference entre ces deux interpretations est tres importante. Persuasive. Selon la premiere interpretation, aux yeux de i, c’est la proposition Q elle-meme qui est mise en avant comme croyance partagee ; dans le second cas, aux yeux de i, c’est la « croyance » C G Q, et non pas Q, qui est mise en avant comme croyance commune. Philosphy Essay. Dans ce dernier cas, la nature precise de ce que veut dire qu’un groupe « croit a quelque chose » reste indeterminee alors que pour (i1), la croyance du groupe se definit aisement comme la croyance d’un grand nombre d’individus de ce groupe. On Torture. Si l’on reprend notre exemple d’un individu i qui croit que le marche croit que telle devise est sous-evaluee, ces deux hypotheses correspondent aux deux interpretations suivantes : (i1) l’individu considere croit que presque tous les autres intervenants sur le marche, pris un a un, croient a la sous-evaluation de la devise ; (i2) l’individu croit que presque tous les intervenants, pris un a un, croient que « le marche croit que la devise est sous-evaluee ». Les deux interpretations (i1) et (i2) nous sont apparues a priori egalement interessantes en ce que toutes deux mettent en scene un travail cognitif particulier qui vise a saisir le groupe dans sa generalite, en lui attribuant une croyance. Philosphy Essay. C’est la, selon nous, une propriete fondamentale. Essay. Il nous semble que c’est tres precisement par le biais de cette capacite cognitive a attribuer des croyances au groupe en tant que tel que le collectif acquiert de facto une existence effective : au travers des croyances sociales qu’il suscite, il se montre apte a modeler les conduites individuelles et, de ce fait, s’affirme comme une force autonome dont il faut rendre compte. How To Write A Personal For College. Autrement dit, conformement a une perspective d’analyse developpee par Mary Douglas [1989] a la suite d’Emile Durkheim, le cognitif est pour nous un lieu privilegie d’expression du social (Orlean [1996]). Persuasive Essay. On verra au fil des exemples que c’est l’interpretation (i2) qui doit etre retenue comme la bonne maniere de definir ce qu’est une « croyance sociale », en particulier au regard de l’idee d’autonomie par rapport aux croyances individuelles.

Cette affirmation resultera d’une analyse des jeux de pure coordination [7] [7] Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii. Obermeyer Operational. , configuration particulierement appropriee pour qui cherche a reflechir aux situations ayant une multiplicite d’equilibres (Orlean [1994]). Persuasive. On commencera par demontrer que ce qu’on appelle « les saillances a la Schelling » constituent un premier exemple de croyance sociale au sens (i2). 2.2 - Un exemple de croyance sociale : les saillances a la Schelling. Thomas Schelling [1960] a consacre une grande partie de son livre a l’analyse des jeux de pure coordination a deux joueurs. Sport Study Changes. Si chaque joueur doit choisir sa strategie dans l’ensemble , le gain obtenu par l’un et l’autre des deux joueurs vaut 1 s’ils choisissent tous deux la meme strategie et 0 dans le cas contraire. Essay. Chaque joueur cherche donc a copier son partenaire de facon a maximiser son gain. Child Labour. Schelling a note que les individus se coordonnent de maniere beaucoup plus efficace que ce que prevoit la theorie standard. Persuasive On Torture. En effet, selon celle-ci, s’il existe n strategies possibles, la probabilite de se coordonner est egale a 1/n puisque chaque strategie est parfaitement indistinguable. Child. Or, dans toutes les experimentations qu’il realise, Schelling note que les joueurs se coordonnent de maniere bien plus efficace que 1/n. Persuasive. Il en est ainsi pour une raison tres simple : parce que les joueurs utilisent le libelle des choix qui leur sont proposes.

De cette facon, ils sont capables de reconnaitre des equilibres dits « saillants ». Kill Mockingbird Statement Thesis. On est ainsi confronte a une double etrangete. Persuasive On Torture. D’une part, dans les situations classiquement considerees par les theoriciens des jeux, la maniere dont les strategies sont nommees est sans aucune pertinence. Prompts. Cela ne fait pas partie de ce qu’on pourrait appeler la description « fondamentaliste » du jeu. Persuasive Essay. Celle-ci est generalement constituee de la matrice des gains et de l’hypothese de rationalite des deux joueurs, au sens de la connaissance commune. Obermeyer Case Study Changes. C’est sur cette seule base que le chercheur s’efforce de caracteriser les equilibres. Essay On Torture. Au regard de la rationalite fondamentaliste, le libelle des strategies n’a pas a etre utilise. Sport Obermeyer Case Changes. Pour designer cette forme de rationalite qui prend appui sur les contextes au-dela de ce que justifierait l’analyse fondamentaliste, nous proposons le terme de « rationalite situee » (Orlean [1994]).

D’autre part, les individus se montrent effectivement capables, a partir des libelles, de, selectionner certains equilibres. On Torture. Examinons cette forme de rationalite doublement enigmatique, a partir des travaux empiriques que Mehta et alii [1994] lui ont consacres. Ces auteurs considerent le jeu de pure coordination particulier consistant a choisir un nombre naturel n ? 1. Kill Thesis. De maniere plus precise, un groupe G d’individus est constitue au sein duquel sont effectues des appariements aleatoires de telle sorte qu’un individu ne sait rien d’autre sur son partenaire que le fait qu’il soit le resultat d’un tirage au sort dans le groupe G. Persuasive Essay. De facon a mieux pouvoir interpreter les resultats obtenus, Mehta et alii ont eu l’idee de commencer par selectionner un premier groupe, note P, auquel il est simplement demander de choisir un entier naturel superieur ou egal a 1, en l’absence de toute situation de coordination. How To Write For College Admission. De cette facon, les auteurs obtiennent des informations sur la distribution des « opinions personnelles » au sein de la population testee. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Dans le deuxieme groupe, note C, le jeu de coordination est joue selon les regles precisees precedemment. Child Good Bad Essay. Quels sont les resultats ? Dans le groupe P de controle, viennent en tete les reponses 7 (11,4%), puis 2 (10,2%), puis 10 (5,7%) et 1 (4,5%). Persuasive On Torture. Par contre, dans le groupe C, c’est le nombre 1 qui recoit le plus de suffrages, et cela tres nettement : 1 est choisi dans 40% des cas. Online. Il est suivi par le nombre 7 dans 14,4%. Essay. Pour les auteurs consideres, le choix du nombre 1 constitue un exemple de ce qu’ils appellent une « saillance a la Schelling », a savoir la capacite a determiner un equilibre singulier, proeminent, susceptible de retenir un grand nombre de suffrages. A Personal Essay. Ils notent que le choix du nombre 1 par le groupe C resulte d’une elaboration cognitive tres specifique et enigmatique en ce qu’elle ne s’interesse pas aux preferences « personnelles » des joueurs en matiere de nombre, ce qui conduirait a selectionner des chiffres comme 7 ou 2, mais cherche a determiner directement ce qui est capable de faire l’unanimite du groupe lorsque chacun analyse le probleme sous le meme angle.

Cela apparait nettement dans le fait que « 1 », le choix final, n’arrive qu’en quatrieme position des choix primaires pour le groupe P de controle. On Torture. Ce n’est pas en tant que nombre apprecie des joueurs qu’il est retenu. How To Write Essay Admission. Le raisonnement est tout autre. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Si les individus retiennent la regle « choisir le premier nombre », c’est en vertu de la propriete suivante : lorsque cette regle est suivie par tous les joueurs, elle permet de designer sans ambiguite une reponse unique et conduit a une coordination reussie. Child. C’est tres precisement ce que Schelling avait mis en lumiere. Persuasive Essay. Il parlait a ce propos d’un « principe focal », a savoir un principe qui, utilise par tous, permet de determiner une strategie unique. Operational. C’est le cas du principe « retenir le premier nombre », et non du principe « choisir un chiffre qu’on aime ». Persuasive On Torture. Dans la situation de coordination que connait le groupe C, les individus reflechissent, non pas a partir de leurs croyances individuelles, ni en se demandant ce que sont les croyances personnelles des autres, ce qui aurait conduit au choix du nombre 7, mais, en se placant a un niveau plus general d’abstraction, de facon a determiner un principe capable de faire emerger, aux yeux de tous, un equilibre unique. Benefits Online Classes. L’activite cognitive est tournee vers le groupe en tant qu’entite separee. On Torture. Elle tente de produire un repere commun sur une base non-cooperative.

On trouve ici un premier exemple de « croyance sociale » au sens (i2). Philosphy Essay. Rappelons que, par definition, Q est une croyance sociale au sens (i2) pour un individu i s’il pense qu’elle est une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les individus du groupe. Essay On Torture. Telle est la nature meme de l’activite cognitive qui conduit certains a retenir le nombre 1 : les joueurs du groupe C choisissent « 1 » parce qu’ils y voient le choix capable de retenir le choix des autres lorsque tous les autres pensent le probleme sous le meme angle. Philosphy Essay. L’activite cognitive qu’elle mobilise est integralement tournee vers le groupe en tant que tel , et non pas vers les preferences individuelles des joueurs. Persuasive Essay. Dans cette derniere hypothese, on benefits classes essay, obtiendrait ce qu’on a appele une croyance sociale au sens (i1), qui conduit au nombre 7 lorsque tous les joueurs sont bien informes des opinions personnelles des membres du groupe telles que nous les revele le groupe P de controle. On Torture. La force de la definition (i2) tient au fait qu’elle fait totalement abstraction de la variabilite des preferences intrinseques des individus pour s’attacher a definir une croyance propre au groupe C en tant que groupe . Labour. C’est une force car, dans un grand nombre de situations, la croyance sociale au sens (i1) est tres incertaine du fait meme de la variabilite des gouts individuels, donc inoperante.

Lorsque l’individu i s’interroge sur la croyance partagee des autres, un grand nombre de reponses plausibles lui viennent a l’esprit. Persuasive Essay. Dans l’interpretation (i2), ce fait ne joue en rien parce que, par definition, chacun cherche a determiner ce qui est capable d’etre une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les autres. Child Labour Good. Cependant, dans ces cas particuliers ou un choix s’affirme comme evidemment majoritaire, la definition (i1) de la croyance sociale permet effectivement une bonne coordination. Persuasive Essay On Torture. On dira qu’on a affaire a un « stereotype ». Philosphy Essay. Cependant, notons que la preference stereotypique est egalement une croyance sociale au sens (i2) de telle sorte que ce cas particulier n’infirme pas la generalite de l’hypothese selon laquelle il convient de retenir la definition (i2) pour penser les « saillances a la Schelling ». 2.3 - Rationalite situee et role des contextes. Dans sa reflexion, Schelling insiste sur le role que jouent les contextes dans l’elaboration des principes focaux. Persuasive Essay. L’exemple precedent ne permet guere d’aller tres loin dans cette voie dans la mesure ou le contexte s’y limite alors strictement aux seuls libelles des choix puisque le groupe C n’est en rien specifie. Benefits. L’exemple suivant que l’on doit a David Kreps ([1990], p. Persuasive On Torture. 120) permet d’aller un peu plus loin en montrant que l’equilibre selectionne depend etroitement de la maniere dont les joueurs analysent l’identite des participants au jeu. Admission Essay. Selon la maniere dont varie la definition du groupe C, la croyance sociale se modifie. Kreps considere le jeu de coordination [8] [8] Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different. On Torture. consistant a partager les 10 lettres A, B, C, D, H, L, M, N, P, S en deux sous-ensembles ne devant pas se recouper, ou le moins possible, etant donne que l’equipe [1] doit choisir necessairement la lettre B et l’equipe adverse, notee [2], la lettre S. Child. Parmi les 256 partitions des 8 lettres restantes qui forment autant d’equilibres possibles de ce jeu, l’equilibre de point focal est selon Kreps, lorsque rien n’est dit de specifique sur le groupe des joueurs [9] [9] En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait. Persuasive On Torture. , celui qui donne a l’equipe [1] les 5 premieres lettres, soit A, B, C, D et H et pour l’equipe [2], les cinq dernieres, soit L, M, N, P et S. Benefits Classes Essay. Il s’agit la d’une nouvelle illustration de la saillance a la Schelling. Essay On Torture. Kreps ajoute cependant : « Notons que la regle appliquee ici est entierement dependante du contexte ». Admission Prompts. Pour le voir, il considere le meme jeu dans laquelle l’equipe [1] est constitue d’etudiants de Harvard et l’equipe [2] est constituee d’etudiants de Stanford et ou ce fait est porte a la connaissance des protagonistes.

10 villes leur sont proposees : Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphie et San Francisco. On Torture. L’equipe [1] doit necessairement choisir Boston et l’equipe [2] San Francisco. Kill Thesis. Du point de vue de la rationalite fondamentaliste, les deux situations de jeu sont strictement equivalentes. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Pourtant, dans a peu pres 75 % des situations nous dit Kreps (p. Write A Personal Admission. 121), les etudiants d’Harvard choisissent Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York et Philadelphie alors que ceux de Stanford retiennent le complement, soit Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles et San Francisco. Persuasive On Torture. Le point focal est ici un partage geographique des USA selon ce qui est a l’est ou a l’ouest du Mississipi. Online Classes Essay. Il est different de l’equilibre focal precedent dans lequel les joueurs ne sont pas capables de partitionner le groupe G des joueurs en groupes d’appartenance geographique distincte. On voit ici pleinement l’effet du contexte dans la determination de la croyance sociale. Persuasive. Celle-ci depend etroitement du groupe considere, de ce qu’on sait de lui, et non pas seulement du contenu intrinseque de la question prise en elle-meme. Labour Bad Essay. Ainsi, si cette liste de villes etait donnee a des joueurs non americains, ignorant tout de la geographie des USA, mais connaissant l’alphabet latin, ils reviendraient a la premiere solution car ils ne pourraient faire l’hypothese que chaque joueur connait la geographie americaine.

Dans ces conditions, la prise en compte de la premiere lettre peut emerger comme « principe focal ». Essay On Torture. Plus paradoxalement, il peut en etre egalement ainsi si, meme si les joueurs sont americains, lorsqu’ils ignorent qu’ils le sont. Child Good. Dans ce cas, chaque joueur ne peut plus faire l’hypothese que le partage geographique prenant pour base le Mississipi est une croyance sociale du groupe. Essay. On voit ici que la maniere dont les protagonistes concoivent « l’identite collective du groupe » apparait comme une donnee essentielle du probleme, determinant la formation des croyances sociales au sens (i2). Philosphy Essay. Tout ce qui appartient au passe commun du groupe, qu’il s’agisse de precedents historiques ou de valeurs culturelles, est utilise. Persuasive Essay. L’exemple considere par Kreps nous donne a voir l’effet d’un contexte culturel, mais le meme resultat pourrait etre obtenu avec un « precedent » historique. Un bon exemple du role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des croyances sociales nous est donne par les marches financiers. Benefits Online. Plus precisement, par les travaux que Shiller [1991] a consacres a la journee du 19 octobre 1987, journee ou la bourse de New York a connu sa plus grande baisse jamais enregistree, soit une chute vertigineuse de 508 points, representant une baisse de 22,6 %. On Torture. Comment expliquer une baisse de telle ampleur ? Les analystes s’accordent pour penser qu’aucune information fondamentale ne permet de le faire. Child Labour Good Bad Essay. Il faut alors chercher ailleurs : dans la dynamique intersubjective et autoreferentielle dont les marches boursiers sont le siege. Persuasive Essay. Shiller a eu l’idee d’envoyer un questionnaire aux investisseurs individuels et institutionnels pour connaitre leurs motivations.

Les resultats qu’il a obtenus mettent en avant le role qu’a joue la crise de 1929 dans ces evenements, en tant que modele de reference servant aux investisseurs a decrypter les evenements et a s’y adapter. Mockingbird Thesis. Il note, en effet, que la crise de 1929 etait fortement presente aux esprits des investisseurs au moment ou se declenche le krach d’octobre 1987. On Torture. 35 % des investisseurs individuels et 53 % des institutionnels ont repondu oui a la question « Vous souvenez-vous d’avoir pense ou parle des evenements de 1929 durant les quelques jours qui ont precede le 19 octobre 1987 ? ». Obermeyer Case Operational. Pour Shiller, la crise de 1929 s’est imposee a tous les esprits comme la saillance pertinente, autrement dit comme le modele permettant de comprendre comment se deroule une crise boursiere. Essay. Rappelons que les mercredi 14, jeudi 15 et vendredi 16 octobre de la semaine qui a precede le krach, le marche des actions a deja connu trois baisses importantes. Kill Mockingbird Thesis. Aussi, durant le week-end et au matin du lundi, les investisseurs sont-ils nerveux. Persuasive On Torture. La tres forte baisse de 200 points qui survient le lundi 19 octobre des l’ouverture des bourses plonge les operateurs dans la perplexite devant ces evenements d’un caractere tout a fait inhabituel. Online Classes Essay. Comment vont reagir le marche et les autres operateurs ? Dans de telles circonstances, que faut-il attendre du marche ? Les investisseurs ont interprete les evenements de 1987 a la lumiere de ceux survenus en 1929. Persuasive. Bien evidemment, la comparaison n’avait pas de quoi les rassurer. How To Essay. Elle a provoque des anticipations fortement baissieres et a alimente puissamment le climat de panique qu’a connu la bourse durant les journees du 19 et 20 octobre 1987. On Torture. Pour Shiller, on sport case study operational changes, ne peut comprendre la surreaction du marche sans integrer a l’analyse le role qu’a joue la saillance « crise de 1929 » comme prototype de la crise boursiere. Essay. C’est le recours a ce modele qui permet d’expliquer le caractere excessif des baisses et des ventes.

Cette analyse illustre avec force le role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des anticipations collectives du marche. 2.4 - L’autonomie des croyances sociales. Cette analyse des contextes, historiques ou culturels, dans la production des croyances sociales, nous donne a voir une etrange deconnexion entre celles-ci et les croyances individuelles. Kill Statement Thesis. Il semble que les individus soient comme impuissants parce que les interpretations legitimes qui modelent l’equilibre de coordination s’imposent a eux independamment de leurs propres opinions. Essay. Ces croyances sociales ont pour origine les multiples reperes communs, historiques et culturels, qui definissent l’identite du groupe. Philosphy Essay. Parce que le passe nous livre des habitudes, des recits, des legitimites, les individus quels que soient par ailleurs leurs opinions ne sont pas libres dans leur capacite a proposer des representations collectives legitimes. Persuasive Essay. Aussi, vont s’imposer aux acteurs economiques des equilibres qu’ils n’auraient pas necessairement souhaites, comme nous l’a montre l’exemple de la crise de 1987. Cette autonomie des croyances sociales se revele avec force dans le fait que peuvent exister des situations ou, simultanement, tous les individus croient a la proposition P et tous les individus croient que le groupe croit a la proposition Q, differente de la proposition P, alors meme qu’aucune de ces croyances n’est erronee. Philosphy Essay. Ne reposant sur aucune erreur, ces situations peuvent donc perdurer sans qu’aucune necessite de changer de croyances, a un niveau ou a un autre, se fasse sentir. Essay On Torture. Autrement dit, cela signifie que l’on peut avoir C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ce que nous avons appele anterieurement « l’effet Reagan » (Orlean [1999], 79-81), sans qu’apparaissent des forces de rappel qui viendraient supprimer l’ecart entre croyances personnelles et croyance sociale.

Notons qu’il en est tout autrement lorsqu’on considere des croyances sociales selon la definition (i1). Good Bad Essay. Dans ce cas, il n’y a pas d’autonomie de la croyance sociale au sens ou l’ecart entre les croyances individuelles et les croyances sociales ne peut pas exister, sauf a supposer des croyances erronees. On Torture. A nouveau, s’affirme le fait que c’est dans la definition (i2) que se trouve la conception la riche et la plus innovante. Kill Thesis. Grace a la propriete d’autonomie qui la caracterise, se modifie en profondeur notre maniere de comprendre les interactions economiques. Essay. Elle met au jour une logique d’un type nouveau, en rupture avec le modele individualiste classique qui voit la representation collective comme « somme » des opinions individuelles. Mockingbird. Desormais, deux niveaux et deux logiques coexistent dont on persuasive essay, doit analyser l’articulation. L’analyse des jeux de coordination permet de bien comprendre pourquoi il en est ainsi. Child Good. En effet, elle nous a montre qu’il fallait soigneusement distinguer entre ce que l’individu pense vraiment et son choix effectif.

Cela tient a la nature meme de l’interaction consideree qui recompense, non pas ceux qui auraient « raison » et repondraient « correctement » a la question posee, si tant est qu’on puisse donner un sens a cette notion, mais ceux qui reussissent a prevoir au mieux les mouvements de l’opinion majoritaire. Essay. Cette distinction appliquee aux marches financiers permet d’eviter les jugements hatifs d’irrationalite qui sont frequemment proferes a rencontre des investisseurs financiers, par exemple lorsqu’on constate une deconnexion importante entre le prix cote et ce que la communaute des economistes considere comme etant l’evaluation fondamentale. Write A Personal Essay For College. Prenons le cas d’une monnaie deja sous-evaluee qui fait neanmoins l’objet d’un important mouvement de ventes sur le marche des changes, conduisant a une sous-evaluation encore plus grande. Persuasive On Torture. On reproche alors aux cambistes d’etre irrationnels au sens ou ils evalueraient mal la valeur fondamentale de la devise en question. Essay. Une telle hypothese ne tient pas. Persuasive. Elle n’est d’ailleurs pas necessaire.

Les cambistes, comme tout un chacun, peuvent parfaitement savoir que la monnaie est sous-evaluee et pourtant continuer a la vendre. Kill Thesis. En effet, ce qui compte pour eux lorsqu’ils interviennent sur le marche n’est pas ce qu’ils pensent etre la vraie valeur de la monnaie, autant qu’ils en peuvent juger, mais ce qu’ils anticipent que le marche va faire. Persuasive. Sur un marche, on essay prompts, fait du profit quand on persuasive essay, reussit a prevoir correctement l’evolution de l’opinion du groupe. Benefits Online Essay. Telle est la regle du jeu. Persuasive On Torture. On ne demande pas aux agents d’avoir raison et d’estimer au mieux la valeur fondamentale. Philosphy Essay. De ce point de vue, la declaration qui suit provenant d’un cambiste interroge au moment de la forte baisse de l’euro en septembre 2000 est tout a fait revelatrice de la dichotomie entre evaluation personnelle sur une base fondamentaliste et choix d’investissement. Persuasive. On y voit un individu intimement persuade du caractere sous-evalue de l’euro, mais expliquant qu’il est neanmoins tenu a vendre s’il ne veut pas perdre de l’argent : « L’operateur que je suis a beau croire a une appreciation de l’euro, il ne fait pas le poids lorsqu’il constate qu’un peu partout les positions des autres intervenants sur le marche des changes sont a la vente de l’euro. Admission Essay Prompts. Du meme coup, meme si j’estime que l’euro merite d’etre plus cher par rapport au dollar, j’hesite toujours a acheter la devise europeenne. On Torture. En effet, si je suis le seul acheteur d’euros face a cinquante intervenants vendeurs, je suis sur d’y laisser des plumes… Je ne fais pas forcement ce que je crois intimement, mais plutot ce que je crois que fera globalement le marche qui in kill mockingbird statement fine l’emportera.

Le travail de l’operateur est de tenter d’evaluer au plus juste le sentiment du marche des devises [10] [10] Liberation, 8 septembre 2000, p. Persuasive Essay On Torture. 24. Kill Statement. . Essay. » Malgre sa conviction personnelle d’une sous-evaluation, ce cambiste joue a la baisse et c’est la un comportement parfaitement rationnel : s’il avait achete de l’euro, il aurait fait des pertes ! Une premiere maniere de concevoir cette situation consiste a suivre l’interpretation que nous en propose le cambiste interroge. Study. Il oppose deux evaluations, l’evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche pensee sous sa forme (i1), i.e . Persuasive On Torture. comme etant la croyance du plus grand nombre des cambistes. Philosphy Essay. Dans un tel cadre, l’individu interroge justifie son suivisme par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs vendeurs, tres exactement « cinquante intervenants vendeurs » qui determinent la croyance du marche. Essay. Selon cette analyse, ces « cinquante intervenants » vendent parce qu’ils pensent que l’euro est surapprecie. Admission Essay. C’est donc une conception erronee du point de vue des fondamentaux qui les conduit a vendre. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Face a ce fait accompli, notre cambiste n’a plus aucun choix. Statement Thesis. Il ne peut que se plier au diktat inadequat de l’opinion majoritaire. Persuasive Essay. Si l’on retient cette interpretation, nous n’observons pas ce que nous avons appele « autonomie des croyances sociales », c’est-a-dire une situation ou, pour tous les acteurs, est observe un ecart entre leur opinion personnelle et leur croyance sociale. Write A Personal Essay Admission. En effet, dans le cadre de l’interpretation proposee par le cambiste interroge, pour les « cinquante vendeurs », croyance personnelle et croyance sociale convergent parfaitement pour prevoir une baisse future de l’euro. Persuasive Essay On Torture. C’est seulement le cambiste interroge qui constate un ecart entre son evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche.

Cette absence d’autonomie n’a rien d’etonnant. A Personal Essay For College. Elle est une consequence du fait que nous avons considere l’interpretation du cambiste et que cette interpretation s’appuie sur une interpretation (i1) de la croyance du marche. Cette interpretation n’est pas necessairement fausse. Persuasive On Torture. Il se peut, dans telle ou telle conjoncture financiere donnee, qu’il existe, en effet, sur le marche des investisseurs naifs, mal informes ou irrationnels. Sport Obermeyer Case Operational Changes. C’est la une question de fait. Persuasive. S’il en est ainsi, la bulle baissiere sur l’euro s’interprete aisement par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs ignorants. Kill. Cependant, il faut bien voir que cette interpretation laisse un point central dans l’ombre : pourquoi les cinquante intervenants se trompent-ils ? Quel mecanisme permet-il d’expliquer qu’une meme erreur se soit propagee au sein du marche ? Aussi, est-il interessant de faire valoir une analyse alternative qui abandonne la dissymetrie suspecte entre notre cambiste parfaitement rationnel et un marche constitue d’operateurs obtus.

Selon cette nouvelle interpretation, les cinquante autres intervenants agissent de maniere identique a notre cambiste : comme lui, ils se conduisent de maniere autoreferentielle, a partir de leur propre croyance sociale quant au fonctionnement du marche. Essay. Mais, conformement a l’analyse precedente, la croyance sociale qu’il faut considerer repond a la definition (i2) et non (i1) : « chacun croit que le marche croit a la baisse de l’euro ». Child Labour Bad Essay. Dans une telle perspective, chacun est identiquement rationnel, agissant en fonction d’une meme croyance quant aux comportements des autres. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Il n’y a pas cinquante intervenants « farouchement » vendeurs, mais cinquante cambistes qui, reflechissant a ce que vont faire les autres intervenants, parmi lesquels se trouve le trader interroge par Liberation , anticipent qu’ils vont vendre. Obermeyer Study Operational. Si on essay, les interrogeait, ils feraient remarquer a leur tour qu’il ne sert a rien d’aller a contre courant d’un marche aussi determine dans son aveuglement. Obermeyer Case Study Operational Changes. Et ils auraient raison. Persuasive Essay On Torture. La vraie croyance ici ne porte pas sur la valeur de l’euro, mais sur le fait que « chacun croit dans le caractere baissier du marche. Write A Personal Essay Admission. » On reconnait alors notre situation de deconnexion entre les croyances privees, toutes convaincues du caractere sous-apprecie de l’euro, et la croyance sociale au sens (i2) selon laquelle le marche croit a la baisse. Persuasive Essay. On a C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou P est la proposition « l’euro est sous-apprecie » et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou Q est la proposition « l’euro est surapprecie ». Philosphy Essay. Si chacun croit que « chacun croit a la baisse », alors chacun sera vendeur et le marche baissera effectivement en validant ex post la croyance initiale. Essay. On retrouve le phenomene de prophetie autorealisatrice. Child Labour. Dans une telle situation, une bulle emerge sans qu’il ait ete necessaire de supposer la presence d’acteurs irrationnels. Persuasive. Chacun est parfaitement rationnel, dans ses evaluations privees et dans son evaluation du marche.

Il n’est pas besoin de supposer des evaluations erronees. Bad Essay. Il suffit que tous les acteurs se referent dans leurs choix a un certain modele de marche, pense comme exprimant une logique separee. Les investisseurs qui n’ont l’impression que de reagir a ce modele de marche, se voient alors tout a fait confirmes dans leur idee d’une autonomie du marche, puisque malgre leur croyance generalisee dans le caractere surapprecie de l’euro, celui-ci continue a baisser. On Torture. Cette autonomie leur parait d’autant plus indeniable que l’evolution observee ne trouve pas dans l’analyse fondamentaliste une explication coherente. Obermeyer Study Changes. Aussi, loin de produire un ajustement de la croyance sociale aux opinions privees, cette situation conduit a renforcer encore la croyance sociale qui s’impose comme seule explication plausible. Persuasive Essay On Torture. L’experience du marche valide l’hypothese d’une autonomie de l’evaluation collective [11] [11] Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations. Online Essay. . Persuasive On Torture. A tous les niveaux, les croyances se voient confirmees : en effet, l’evaluation fondamentale de l’euro est sous-appreciee ; en effet, le marche croit a la baisse ; en effet, l’euro baisse ; en effet, le marche se comporte de maniere autonome, c’est-a-dire deconnecte des appreciations fondamentalistes. La notion de rationalite cognitive donne lieu a de nombreuses elaborations, comme le demontre pleinement le present numero de la Revue d’Economie Politique . Statement Thesis. Il faut s’en rejouir. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Le champ est vaste et a trop longtemps ete laisse en friche par la theorie economique traditionnelle. Philosphy Essay. Pour notre part, nous avons voulu montrer en quoi la notion de croyance sociale s’imposait a l’analyse economique pour penser nombre de situations importantes.

Cette perspective de recherche peut servir deux finalites convergentes : d’une part, reequilibrer des approches cognitivistes traditionnellement centrees sur la cognition individuelle au detriment de la cognition sociale ; d’autre part, permettre un dialogue entre l’economie et les autres sciences sociales, telles la sociologie, l’anthropologie et l’histoire, qui ont beaucoup a nous apprendre sur ces sujets. Au moins deux auteurs participant au present numero se referent explicitement a la notion de « rationalite cognitive » et en proposent des definitions precises : Raymond Boudon et Bernard Walliser. Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue Francaise d’Economie , on essay on torture, trouve ecrit : « etudie son propre environnement » la ou, dans la version anglaise, on obermeyer case operational changes, trouve « survey the persuasive on torture, whole field ». Statement Thesis. L’ambiguite est totale et nous avons prefere modifier la traduction en consequence. Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee en partant de la notion d’efficience financiere. Persuasive Essay On Torture. On aurait montre (1) que celle-ci est « impossible » pour reprendre le titre d’un article celebre (Grossman et Stiglitz [1980]) et (2) que, dans le cadre de prix informationnellement inefficients, seule modelisation desormais acceptable, les agents pour ne pas commettre d’erreurs d’interpretation doivent pouvoir connaitre l’action d’autres operateurs (Gennotte et Leland [1990]) ; (3) ce qui a conduit a l’etrange notion de « sunshine trading », a savoir l’annonce publique de certains ordres (Admati et Pfleiderer [1991]). Philosphy Essay. Autrement dit, se trouve reconnue la necessite d’en savoir plus que les prix.

CQFD. Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite est en elle-meme faible » est defendue par Kenneth Arrow ([1987], p. Persuasive. 206). Benefits Classes. Le theoreme de Sonnenschein lui fournit une illustration exemplaire de ce point. On Torture. Mais les exemples ne manquent pas. Essay. On pense a l’article de Boldrin et Montrucchio [1986] ou il est montre que l’optimisation dynamique intertemporelle est compatible avec toute forme de sentier dynamique pour l’economie, sans exception, y compris des chaos. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Autrement dit, supposer que les individus sont rationnels ne limitent en rien l’ensemble des cheminements economiques possibles ! En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions dans lesquelles on child bad essay, attribue des qualites a des objets collectifs, par exemple « les voitures allemandes sont meilleures que les voitures francaises » ou « le mark est une monnaie forte ». Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande partie du groupe », ou encore « presque tout le groupe » ou « presque tous les membres du groupe », demandera a etre precise dans des travaux ulterieurs. Persuasive Essay On Torture. Dans le cadre de cet article, nous resterons volontairement flou et imprecis sur ce point. Philosphy Essay. On peut lire toute la suite de l’article en remplacant « une grande partie du groupe » par « tous les membres du groupe ». Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii [1994].

Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different et notablement plus complique. Persuasive Essay On Torture. J’en presente une version simplifiee qui conduit aux memes conclusions mais evite une presentation inutilement longue. En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait ou suppose un certain nombre de qualites communes, comme parler la meme langue, celle dans laquelle l’experimentation est faite. Liberation , 8 septembre 2000, p. Philosphy Essay. 24. Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations privees ne reussissent pas a modifier le choix collectif n’est pas sans equivalent dans la litterature theorique. On Torture. Dans les situations de type « electronic mail game » (Rubinstein [1989]), on thesis, observe des blocages similaires au sens ou l’echange de messages entre deux individus, aussi nombreux soientils, ne reussit pas a engendrer la connaissance commune necessaire a une certaine action des deux joueurs. Essay On Torture. Les cascades informationnelles ont egalement cette propriete.

Cet article plaide pour la necessaire ouverture de la theorie economique aux representations individuelles et collectives, ce qui est appele « tournant cognitif ». Kill Mockingbird. Dans une premiere partie, on on torture, montre que la rationalite instrumentale ne fournit pas un cadre adequat pour penser cette activite cognitive. How To A Personal. Il faut alors introduire l’idee d’une rationalite cognitive distincte de la rationalite instrumentale. Persuasive On Torture. Cette necessite s’impose des lors qu’on remarque que les modeles a anticipations rationnelles conduisent structurellement a des equilibres multiples. Philosphy Essay. Autrement dit, les criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont trop faibles des lors qu’il s’agit de determiner precisement la maniere dont les agents forment leurs representations. Persuasive. Dans une seconde partie, on how to write a personal essay for college admission, avance la notion de « croyance sociale » pour penser ces representations collectives.

D’une part, on persuasive essay on torture, montre que leur formation depend etroitement des contextes culturels et historiques. Kill Mockingbird. D’autre part, on persuasive, etablit que ces croyances sociales ne peuvent pas etre pensees comme la « somme » des croyances privees : celles-la sont dotees d’une forte autonomie par rapport a celles-ci. rationalite cognitive croyance commune jeu de coordination point focal saillance a la Schelling anticipation rationnelle croyance sociale reperes communs. Summary This article argues for classes, the need to persuasive essay on torture integrate beliefs the obermeyer case changes, individual and persuasive essay collective levels in kill thesis economic theory, something which is essay, referred to benefits online essay as a cognitive turning point. On Torture. In the admission essay prompts, first section of the persuasive essay, article, we show that instrumental rationality does not offer an benefits online classes adequate framework for persuasive, analysing this sort of benefits online cognitive activity.

Rather, what is on torture, needed is admission essay, a notion of essay cognitive rationality which is admission prompts, distinct from essay, instrumental rationality. Classes Essay. This necessity appears clearly when we look at on torture, rational expectations models. Philosphy Essay. As a rule, these models have multiple equilibria. On Torture. This implies that the kill statement, criteria of essay instrumental rationality is sport obermeyer study changes, too weak to persuasive on torture specify the benefits online, way people forms their representations of the persuasive, world. How To A Personal. In the persuasive on torture, second section, we introduce the child labour good bad essay, concept of essay social belief. Child Labour. We show that the on torture, formation of how to write a personal for college admission social beliefs is persuasive essay on torture, closely related to admission prompts the cultural and essay historic context. Statement Thesis. We conclude by persuasive essay on torture demonstrating that social beliefs cannot be thought of good as the persuasive essay, direct result of write admission individual beliefs : there are in persuasive essay on torture part autonomous from good, individual beliefs. Classification JEL : A1, B5, C7. cognitive rationality common belief coordination game focal point Schelling salience rational expectation social belief common reference.

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While Antony and Brutus are both friends of Caesar, other character traits including courage, loyalty, and sincerity set them apart from each other. Antony and Brutus are both admirably courageous. It. Conflicting Perspectives, Julius Caesar + 2 Related. contradictory viewpoints on Caesar’s personalities, but the persuasive on torture view that Caesar is a tyrant is diminished to heighten the veracity of Caesar as an ideal man of write essay, leadership, ensuring its relevance among the persuasive on torture Elizabethan audience. Shakespeare exhibits the justification of Caesar’s assassination in admission essay, a dramatic. In William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar; the on torture character Marcus Brutus fits the definition of benefits online, a tragic hero. He was respected throughout this story by all of the persuasive people in how to for college, Rome. Brutus was a noble man , more noble than evil.

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The conspiracy of how to write for college admission, Julius Caesar. Is Brutus right in joining the conspiracy? Rome. Brutus a supporter of the republic and powerful public figure is a man with good intentions but was a tragic flaw. Brutus is seen as a respectable character and noble man but it shown to be easily fooled and manipulated. Persuasive On Torture! Brutus is also a conspirator in the murder of Julius Caesar. Brutus tragic. Why Marcus Garvey is Ignorant In my opinion, Marcus Garvey’s idea of essay prompts, a separate “black” nation was absolutely ridiculous.

Garvey’s idea was far too unrealistic and was every thing but a solution to the problems Negroes faced in the United States during that time. I have this opinion for several reasons;. poem there is a conflict between Greeks and Troys. Achillies is also known as a good warrior, super strength Beowulf is a hero he is the strongest man ever living. Essay On Torture! He has the best reputation and people respect him highly. For example, when Beowulf had killed Grendel everyone praised him. In line 380. impressive writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion. In William Shakespeare's very famous play The Tragedy of Julius Caesar Marcus Brutus and Marck Antony, both Roman Senators at the time; give a speech at Julius Caesar's funeral.

Both speakers introduce themselves to the crowd in. The Tragedy of the Play Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar, the tragedy of the play was directed mainly at a one specific character, Marcus Brutus . How To A Personal For College Admission! Brutus was the persuasive on torture tragic hero of the play, because of his idealistic and pragmatic qualities. The mindset that Brutus possessed only allowed him to see the for college world and its people from one point of view. This. William Shakespeare revolves around the assassination of Caesar and persuasive, the ensuing civil war. Two important characters for how to for college, triggering these events were Brutus and persuasive on torture, Caesar. These two characters can be considered polar opposites, a clash between an idealist and a realist. Both have different characteristics. friend for a long time, but all the philosphy essay time hating Julius Caesar and resenting the fact that he is persuasive essay a servant to a dictator.

This is evident from when Brutus talks about Caesar fainting and offering crowds his throat to child labour bad essay, cut and essay on torture, Cassius says, “ if I would not have taken him at a word, I would I might go. Volumnia's influence on Coriolanus. Martius, later known as Coriolanus, is a driven, plebeian-hating man of war who requires little manipulation from his perpetrators Sicinius and Brutus to find himself shunned by the popular rule he so disgusts. Kill Mockingbird! Although Sicinius and Brutus no doubt play a role in these proceedings, Coriolanus’ character. for the persuasive traps of others.

Mark Antony, Caesar’s right hand man , was a dishonorable and butcher who seeks for revenge, had revealed his true self after Caesar’s death. In contrast, Marcus Brutus , the tragic hero in this play was a very noble sacrificer, who lost everything due to the greediness and evilness. Declline of Macbeth from Noble Hero to Ruthless Tyrant. play, the writer shows the reader a preiview of Macbeths character when the soldiers say brave Macbeth, from this we know that he is a famous and noble man When we first meet Macbeth he is with Banquo and thesis, they run into persuasive essay on torture, the three withces who greet Macbeth with the following titles All hail Macbeth. mentioned. Essay! One of them was Sofonisba Anguissola. Her exact date of birth is unknown but it is thought to be somewhere around 1535. She was born into a noble family and persuasive essay, three of her sister were also active in art. She worked as a painter in the Spanish court from 1559 to 1573. (Chadwick 1996: 78-79) Anguissola. Four Facets of Man in Othello Shakespeare in classes, his tragedy, Othello, the Moor of persuasive on torture, Venice shows different character traits in admission essay prompts, 4 of the male characters in persuasive essay on torture, the play.

In other words you could say he represented the Four Facets of Man in the play Othello: Roderigo, the failure; Othello, the hero, yet the. How Did the how to essay admission Romans Build a Strong Republic? assassinated. Persuasive Essay! His power, success, and popularity alarmed many nobles and senators. They feared that he would destroy the sport obermeyer case study operational changes Senate and become a king which brings the Republic to essay on torture, an end. Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius Caesar who were nobles killed Caesar in a personal essay for college, the Senate to prevent this. Persuasive On Torture! Octavian’s. Justification of philosphy essay, Julus Caesar's Assassination. Brutus’s and essay, Antony’s.

At Caesar’s funeral, Brutus tries to convince the people of Rome that the assassination of Caesar was the best thing to do. He justifies conspiring against Caesar by stating that Caesar's ambition would have hurt Rome. Brutus seeks to explain why he conspired against Caesar. the character, Marcus Brutus , makes a speech to the Romans, Countrymen, and Lovers of Caesar, explaining why he killed Caesar, and to child good bad essay, prove to essay on torture, them that he did it for the good of Rome. His speech is successful due to the use of Logos and prompts, Ethos in essay on torture, his speech. In his speech, Brutus uses Ethos to. Letters believed to be from Roman citizens to Brutus ? Written by Cassius ? Persuade Brutus to sport study operational, help redress Rome • “O Rome, I make thee promise, if the redress will follow, thou receivest thy full petition at the hand of Brutus .” (56-58) ? Flattery • “No man here but honors you… wish you had that opinion. personalities. In his play Julius Caesar, the character of Brutus is very complex with many different personality traits. Essay! These traits explain why Brutus makes certain decisions including the one to kill his friend Julius Caesar. Philosphy Essay! br br Marcus Brutus was a senator who was well respected by everyone in Rome. 102 as his birth year).

His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and persuasive essay on torture, his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of essay prompts, noble birth. Both held to the Populare ideology of Rome which favored democratization of government and essay on torture, more rights for admission, the lower class as opposed to the. would take their own lives if they did not have a male leader to tell them what to do. The author, William Shakespeare, uses the essay on torture wives of Caesar and Brutus to show how they do not have their own voice. Calphurnia tells Caesar to stay home because she has a bad dream about Caesar and essay, does not want. Brutus and on torture, Cassius In Shakespeare’s play, “The Tragedy of Julius Caesar”, two important dynamic characters, Cassius and Brutus , play the philosphy essay role to bring the essay on torture tragedy into Julius’ life. Cassius is revealed to have villainous and disapproving elements towards Caesar which is philosphy essay significant. Who Is the More Effective Speaker, Brutus or Mark Anthony? Who Is the More Effective Politician? was the first speech the two men had to prove to their part of the story. Brutus , supporting his act in essay, the murder of Caesar and Mark Antony, who was against philosphy essay the fact that it was good for Caesar to die and gradually blaming Brutus for what wrong he had committed.

Both men were good friends of persuasive, Caesar. Brutus' Motivation in Julius Caesar. regarding someone’s life, it is of the utmost importance that it be thought out kill statement thesis carefully and persuasive, examined intricately. In Shakespeare’s tragedy Julius Caesar, Brutus is cleverly tricked into joining the conspirators in mockingbird statement, a plot to assassinate Caesar. However, he rationalizes his position by on torture telling himself it’s for. How Brutus is characterized in Antony’s Speech In a limited amount of prompts, words, a total picture of a character can be formed. The tragedy that Shakespeare has written is a complete masterpiece because it floods the reader with emotions and takes them on an incredible journey.

In Marc Antony’s famous. but it will not rise to the price of a diamond, or carbuncle, that showeth best in varied lights. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure. Doth any man doubt, that if there were taken out of men's minds, vain opinions, flattering hopes, false valuations, imaginations as one would, and the like, but it. Brutally murdering Brutus ' claims of Caesar's ambition within the opening lines of his speech, Antony annihilates the noble's reputation in the same spiel, easily swaying the public's opinion of Caesar and the late emperor's assassinators. In an effort to detract from Brutus ' reputation, Antony refutes. Julius Caesar - Character Analysis. Antony shows his great intelligence in the scene where he discovers Caesar’s bloody dead body on the floor. “I doubt not of your wisdom. Let each man render me his bloody hand (III, ii, 184)” Here, he makes peace with the conspirators, and goes onto their side. He does this so that he is not killed. Cassius tries to convince B that they are no less a man than JC.

A1 S2 6. JC has epilepsy 7. Antony offers Caesar crown three times but he refuses it. Every time he refused it he was more gently about it 8. Cassius will send forged letters to persuasive, Brutus A1 S3: 9. Casa “sees” many “unnatural”. over the Samnites, in which they were aided by the Romans. The first Roman gladiatorial games were held in 246 BCE by Marcus and Decimus Brutus in honor of their father, Junius Brutus , as a munus or funeral gift for good, the dead. It was a relatively small affair that included the combat of three pairs of. wanted to prevent a man of such ambition from persuasive essay, ruling Rome. The book includes the devastating events which occur in result of the murder. Shakespeare discusses the role of fate and philosphy essay, free will in a person's life through the characters of Caesar, Cassius, and Brutus . While Cassius and Brutus relate to the idea. Augustus and the Rise of the Roman Empire. river Tiber in on torture, the Italian peninsular, the rulership of the city was dominated by kings until “freedom and admission essay prompts, the consulship [was] established by Lucius Brutus ” This newly founded city state expanded, controlling the rest of the peninsular, then came into persuasive essay, conflict with other civilizations in the Mediterranean. with their bones; So let it be with Caesar.

The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious: If it were so, it was a grievous fault, And grievously hath Caesar answer'd it. Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest-- For Brutus is an honourable man ; So are they all, all honourable men-- Come. Marcus Brutus character analysis, from Julius Caesar. Marcus Brutus character analysis, from Julius Caesar William Shakespeare's play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, is mainly based on the assassination of Julius Caesar. How To Write A Personal Essay! The character who was in charge of the assassination was, ironically, Marcus Brutus , a servant and persuasive essay, close friend to Julius Caesar. But.

The Main Characteristics of a Man Named Brutus Shakespeare was a talented writer who wrote about common themes of love, loss, betrayal, loyalty and others of that sort. When Shakespeare wrote the play Julius Caesar he was not really writing about Caesar at all but actually writing about the struggles. Is John Proctor a Good Man ? Throughout the play ‘the crucible’, Miller portrays John Proctor in many different ways and emotions, such as hard-working, proud and noble . He is one of the main characters if not the main and has a strong, deceiving personality which leads to the question, is. How do you find Marcus Brutus and Julius Caesar compare as the main characters in Shakespeare’s play? Do you find them to obermeyer operational changes, be representative of good vs. evil? In the historical tragedy of Julius Caesar, there are a number of contrasting themes and characters who develop the persuasive on torture theme of good vs. evil and. Marcus Junius Brutus was the son of Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder and Servilia Caepionis. His father was killed by Pompey the Great in dubious circumstances after he had taken part in the rebellion of write essay admission, Lepidus; his mother was the persuasive essay on torture half-sister of Cato the Younger, and later became Julius Caesar's mistress. continued to rule Rome until about 509 B.C. It was at write a personal for college, this time that the last of the Roman king, Tarquin the persuasive Proud, was overthrown by Lucius Junius Brutus . After that, the Roman Republic was born. The Roman Republic was based off of magistrates that were annually elected by the people.

These people. Macbeth and statement thesis, hides itself from persuasive essay, everyone else in the room. Macbeth is sport obviously terrified by the ghost. This is shown when he speaks to it, and says ‘What man dare, I dare: Approach thou like the persuasive on torture rugged Russian bear, The arm’d rhinoceros, or the Hyrcan tiger; take any shape but that…’. Online Essay! He shows his fear of. Brutus as a tragic hero In the play Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare portrays Marcus Brutus as a dramatic character and develops him into a tragic hero. Persuasive On Torture! “Shakespeare’s tragedies often feature the death of the titular character at the play’s end” (Julius Caesar 1). Maurice Charney sees Brutus as. *DATE* *TEACHER_NAME* *CLASS _#* *DAY_MONTH_YEAR* Brutus , the Tragic Hero There is much debate as to who plays the part of the tragic hero in Julius Caesar, but through analysis and literal evidence, it can be proved that Marcus Brutus plays the tragic hero.

The definition of a tragic hero, as. Political Reasons Why Ceasar was Killed. made any man on Earth jealous, and because of this, it wasn’t surprising was that Caesar had many man underneath his rule that were extremely envious. Not to mention that a large amount of them were in debt to Caesar which didt help the cause. The first was his long time friend M. Junius Brutus . Although. him early on, in Seutonius Sulla was to statement, have said of Caesar upon pardoning him for the marriage to Cornelia, Very well then, . But never forget that man whom you want me to spare will one day prove the persuasive ruin of the party which you and I have so long defended. There are many Mariuses in this fellow Caesar. between us we shall ever strike till one can do no more” (Shakespeare, P. 15). Before the characters meet in battle, Coriolanus describes Aufidius as “the man of my soul’s hate” (Shakespeare, P.23).

When the two are engaged in battle, Coriolanus tells Aufidius, “I’ll fight with none but thee, for I do hate. Title: Marcus Brutus This is an essay analyzing the how to write essay character of Marcus Brutus in William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. In Shakespeare'sJulius Caesar, the character I found to persuasive on torture, be interesting was Marcus Brutus . As a conspirator against Julius Caesar and philosphy essay, a tragic hero in the end, his characteristics were ones that I thought were admirable. Brutus is a complicated and dynamic character because he is easily manipulated. Roman senators. Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Brutus , they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in persuasive on torture, a location adjacent to the Theatre of philosphy essay, Pompey on the Ides of March. As a result a few days later the roman people had funeral for Caesar.

This where Brutus gave his speech to try to convince the the roman. The Honor of an Important Roman Man In Roman history, some elite men held certain values that they felt strong enough to take their life in order to defend it. In William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, there are certain characters portrayed to show how a person’s values or ideas can change their behavior. Essay. About a Boy is a movie about a poor boy named Marcus and his mother. They live on their own in essay, a small apartment. Marcus goes to a public school dressed in very old clothes and worn out shoes. He has no friends and gets bullied a lot. Marcus ’ mother is a lot of the problem. She makes him dress.

conspirators’ are Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus and Cassius are alike in many ways, differences overpower. The way they show their feelings, how they take responsibility, and the reasons why they were a main conspirator are three reasons Brutus and Cassius are different. The way Brutus and Cassius. Mr.

Myers English 10 March 5, 2013 Marcus Brutus : A True Hero The definition of a hero is a person, typically a man , who is admired for courage or noble qualities. Would you call a man who killed his best friend a hero? Most people wouldn’t, but in Marcus Brutus’s case, he is (in the true definition.

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essays about trees The following are the prize winning essays from the essay competition held at Tashidingkha MSS in commemoration of persuasive, Social Forestry Day 2014: We are not new to the fact that trees, humans and other organisms must coexist in changes, harmony. On Torture! Trees are the basic source of life. Forget the world; let us talk about our country. A Personal! The forest cover in Bhutan is providing us with all our fundamental needs and other countless number of essay, things. Others need not be mentioned, though equally important, we are being provided with free flowing water for agriculture and hydropower generation which is the heart of our country’s economy. In the last few decades, forest cover in obermeyer case operational changes, Bhutan had been rapidly disappearing. In the 1960s Bhutan took a big leap towards modernization from persuasive isolation. Tough not literally, we had been bringing destruction on our country ever since. “Modernization is replacing forest covers, with others not yet talked about.” That would be the most appropriate phrase to describe the chain of events taking place in the country since then. With modernization, population in Bhutan boomed, assisted by the boost of country’s economy and social services.

This led to changes fragmentation of free land and persuasive essay on torture clearing of benefits classes, forests. Trees were, and are, being cut down extensively to meet the wants of the persuasive on torture people. Case Study Operational! Moreover, higher demand for essay on torture, land for agriculture and philosphy essay other purposes are met with deforestation. We know, but we are not aware, that it’s just the waging wars against ourselves. While forest cover is disappearing the whole world is experiencing devastating natural disasters. We all know these are the consequences of our primitive careless manners. Some of persuasive on torture, these disasters are landslides, Glacial Lake Outburst Flood, etc. The world is how to write a personal admission working towards preserving what we are left with in persuasive, unison. It has now realized the child labour fact that without trees no living beings can exist. The government of Bhutan is also trying its best to conserve forests.

If you plant a single tree for persuasive on torture, every one you cut, then the forest coverage will remain constant. If you cannot do that, at least plant a single tree every year. Plant trees for a green society, a green school, for a green Bhutan, for a green world, a green planet which is after all a better place to live in. As said by Lohn Keats, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever.” The thing which is sport obermeyer case study changes beautiful lasts forever. Trees are one. According to English Oxford Student Learner’s Dictionary a tree means a plant that can live for essay, long time. Online Essay! However, we must plant trees to essay on torture keep them alive generation after generation. Otherwise they will disappear forever. For every hard work there is reward. If we do hard work in essay, planting trees then we will get rewards of fresh air, water, fruits, raw materials for making medicines and houses.

Trees also provide continuous supply of water for generating electricity which can be used for domestic purposes as well as export to other countries. This generates income and essay increases our economy. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. If we conserve forest, the result will be good, but if we destroy forest, then the result will be bad. Therefore, it is admission essay better to conserve forest and make our country clean and green. In order, to conserve our forests, we have to persuasive essay on torture stop shifting cultivation, deforestation, forest fire and lumbering. If we cut down a lot of trees, then the world climate will change. Water sources will dry up, land will turn barren, air will get polluted, plants and animals will get extinct. To avoid such hazards, we must first of all educate our people about the good bad essay importance of trees. Then we should teach them how to persuasive essay on torture take care of our Mother Nature. Trees are our guardian deities and protectors, as they shelter us from how to write a personal sun, rain and on torture storm.

We must look upon them with outmost respect and benefits online care. To achieve the persuasive essay on torture goal of Green Bhutan, we must plant trees and take care of them throughout the country. The Social Forestry Day reminds us of our co-existence with nature and how to a personal admission inspires us to plant trees. So let us join hands today and do it. As quoted by Ralph Waldon Emerson, “Nature never hurries, atom by atom, little by little, she achieves her work.” It is time for the Bhutanese people to think twice and work extra. The term “Green Bhutan” doesn’t only mean that the color of the persuasive essay land should look green all over but it also refers to the happiness of each and every Bhutanese Citizen. Directly or indirectly, trees are the smaller units of nature which helps to achieve this happiness. Why should people plant trees? They should plant trees because trees are the backbone of Bhutan’s economy.

They also help in reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Forest helps in protection of kill mockingbird, rare species of the world which are endangered. Bhutan is known as one of the persuasive essay on torture ten biological hot spots in the world due to child good its vast forest coverage. So it is the responsibility of persuasive, each and sport obermeyer study changes every citizen to work together to essay uphold with the name. It is said that once Sahara desert was a thick forest but due to over exploitation, it has now become the world’s largest desert. I am sure that none of the Bhutanese would wantour rich forest to turn into poor deserts. So why not plant at essay, least one tree by every citizen and increase the number? In terms of economy, trees not only contribute for electricity but also attract tourists from the outside world in on torture, the country. Tourism is one of the largest income generating industries in Bhutan. Tourists visit Bhutan to take breathes of fresh air and enjoy the beauty of green scenery and philosphy essay crystal clear water. Vegetation at Phobjikha in Wangdue is providing home for the black naked cranes which are rare on the earth.

Bhutanese people are lucky to see many of the persuasive on torture rare species of flora and philosphy essay fauna which are not seen in other countries. Foreigners have to travel a long distance to come to Bhutan to persuasive essay see those beautiful plants and benefits animals. We know now that planting of trees has uncountable advantages for essay, people. When a person plants a tree, it not only benefits that person but also many others. If all individuals in Bhutan plant trees, it produces a huge positive impact. So keep this in mind and bad essay plant trees for Green Bhutan. We are fortunate to have DrukGyalpoJigmeSingayWangchuk as our fourth king because he was the one who inspired us to preserve our greatest treasure of green forest. On His coronation day on June 2 we observe Social Forestry Day where we plant trees and pay respect to the Nature. Foreign people come from far away country to Bhutan because we haveelegant forest in our country.

Even though our country is small and poor but because of persuasive, nature we are popular and rich. His majesty DrukGyalpoJigmeSingayWangchuk, the king of write for college admission, Bhutan, has stated “Throughout the centuries, the Bhutanese have treasured their natural environment and have looked upon essay it as the source of life. We wish to continue living in harmony with nature and to sport obermeyer study pass on essay, this rich, heritage to our future generations”. Bhutan is benefits online classes also one of the first countries in the world to on torture create trust fund dedicated to environment protection. Being a Buddhist land Bhutan believes in giving back to nature what has been taken away and to respect all forms of life. If we don’t plant trees for green Bhutan now,we would regret in future when our country sees many Sahara Deserts. Long time back Sahara desert was not a desert but a beautiful forest with full of plants and animals.But soon it awfully turned into desert because of human greediness and wants for natural resources. If this happens in our country, people would feel sad for philosphy essay, what they have done to the forest. So we have to think twice, be cautious and take serious responsibility for saving our gift of persuasive essay, beautiful nature. Being Bhutanese citizens, let us join our hands together and work to make our homes, schools, country and earth green and beautiful by kill statement thesis, planting more trees. So, lastly my dear friends living on the earth as enthusiastic students, we should plant trees and preserve them for future generations.

As a saying goes “one drop of water makes a mighty ocean, “by planting at least a single tree each year we can create a big forest. Keep this in mind and act now before it is too late. Trees are basically a plant which is persuasive supposedly believed one of the oldest and clearly important features that have existed and still prevails on this earth abundant. In addition to how to a personal essay admission its significant values of persuasive, air and water for the rest of the how to write a personal for college admission depending creatures on earth, it also act as vital factor particular in beautifying mother earth and safe guarding her biodiversity. Bhutan is a country that religiously concern trees plus on the other hand depends profoundly on trees. ‘Green’ resembles the color of persuasive, trees and is moreover a refreshing healthy color. “Just plant a tree and benefits online classes never on it let anyone pee”.

People know the consequences of the absence of trees, they should know it. It would result in grave difficulties to all being on earth. Essay! Have you ever questioned yourself about how difficult it would it is going to be if more trees disappear? Sometimes do some critical thinking. Trees have consequently started to decrease in quantity and write a personal devastating natural calamities are happening on mother earth due to human commercial and home uses.

Obviously we understand that trees wouldn’t ever extinct but never the less many unique and important species of persuasive essay on torture, trees are lost recently. So people must humbly appreciate the a personal for college admission gift of nature in a cursory manner by simply planting trees. Bhutan being mountainous country, mountain would wear down due to on torture the disappearance of trees, since the trees make the soil fixed using their roots. No mountains means no Bhutan because Bhutan is just a range of mountain in small portion of the world. Bhutan is also one of the biological hotspots. Bhutan has been awarded recognition award for the beneficiary and protective works in conserving Mother Nature from United Nation Organization. A Personal For College Admission! In act beloved 4 th King of Bhutan should be appreciated by all the essay citizens for his responsibility in preserving the forest. The king has indeed done his part of responsibility in making beyond half of the country ‘Green’ and now the time has come for the people to maintain, conserve and protect the trees.

So, “Plant More Trees for Green Bhutan”. As coded by Mahatma Gandhi, “Earth Provides Enough to Satisfy Every Man’s Needs, but Not Every Man’s Greed”. So Bhutan is one of the tenth “Biological Hotspots” in the world that means Bhutan is one of the sport study areas with a richest biodiversity. It is mountainous country surrounded by persuasive on torture, beautiful forest. Bhutan’s forest cover is 64% of our land. We are fortunate to be born on this green planet, earth, created by the gods. We all know that our natural world is a splash of eye catching colors and it is one of the most important natural resources, yet it is all up to us weather we want to preserve our forest or not before it turns into a barren land Sahara desert of Africa. Forest gives us fresh water and air to breathe to all living beings in this earth. In olden days people can live more than 80 years though there were no hospitals like present world. It is mainly because of forest which provides medicinal herbs like Om-rib (local medicinal) which is used to labour treat fiver, lungs and on torture liver diseases and other such as Cordyceps (Yartse Geonbom) which can cure heart diseases and cancer, so it is a rear medicine found on the Himalayan mountain. We get wild food and mockingbird thesis fruits like mushrooms, asparagus, strawberry etc from the forest.

Our country is rich in forest. People export trees in other countries and persuasive on torture make an economic for kill thesis, the country. So, as a saying, “If the wealth is lost nothing is lost, if health is lost everything is lost”. Conservation of forest doesn’t mean that we should not cut down the trees but we can manage and utilize in sustainable way. To keep our country green forever we must conserve our forest by following some of the ways such as reducing the number of persuasive on torture, cattle, harvesting trees in a selective way and stop shifting cultivation. Our royal Government also carries out activities to safe our mother earth. We have afforestation and reforestation program in our country. We celebrate 2 nd June as social forest day. Actually June 2 nd is coronation day of His Majesty 4 th King. We celebrate the day by planting trees in our school.

In order to maintain 64% of land under forest cover. As per the saying, “It is better to safe than sorry”. So look after our forest and environment before it is too late. Now we are facing different problems due to rapid growth of population, cut trees for kill statement, building materials, construction of road though forest which damage the trees, shifting cultivation which causes forest fire and as a result it destroy animal life and create imbalance in ecosystem. On Torture! Forest fire also causes soil erosion and landslides which damage our life and properties. Since the population of our country is growing rapidly they cut down lot of trees which absorbed carbon dioxide. Day by day the temperature of earth is increasing causing global warming which causes natural calamities. Streams and river are drying, different varieties of diseases come up which damage our life and properties. Animals are disappearing which helps in balancing ecosystem. Now forest covers are reducing and it is our responsible to look after our natural environment, as a saying goes, “Time and Tide waits for none”. So, start working before it is too late.

So lastly, plant is mankind, everything that we have comes from the Mother Nature. The foods that we eat, cloth that we have, the book that we are studying are all from admission plants products. As a saying goes, “Prevention is better the cure”. So now let us all join our hand to save our mother earth. -Essays Submitted by Sr.

Dzongkhag Forest Officer, Punakha.