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books or tv essay DISADVANTAGES OF TELEVISION. In today modern world television is the most popular and recognized from of media and most homes in the western and developed worlds own one. That small (in some cases rather large) box sitting in your lounge is your connection to the outside world. It is an indispensable item and many of us cannot imagine life without it. As with everything there are advantages and disadvantages with the television. Smoking Thesis. The main advantage is televisions ability to bring you news as it happens. The Great. A second advantage is the fact we are using more than one sense when viewing. The final advantage in this essay is the vast amount of information and essay, documentaries available for discursive structure higher viewing. However the smoking essay first disadvantage is the amount of time spent watching television is farming essays, often considered a waste of smoking time.
The second disadvantage is the fact that families may be in the same room but with the television on may not even acknowledge each other. The final disadvantage illustrated in this essay is that young children are often being exposed to sex scenes and scenes of violence. Firstly, for many of us the television is our first or only higher, source of news and current events. Most channels have news updates up to four times a day and current affairs programmes which take a deeper look at the news that has affected the smoking thesis world that day or week. Theses programmes are often family friendly and are sometimes the only form of discursive media available or easy to essay understand for children or non-speakers of English. These news shows keep people up to of induction date on essay, the outside world it is possible to know everything that happened in a day without even going outside. The Great Essays On Love. However these news shows can try and monopolize people's opinions and be a bias to one political party or one side of a war. Secondly, what many of us do not realise is that we use at least two senses to enjoy television. We use our eyes to watch the television screen and the visual on smoking essay, the screen.
We also use our ears or hearing to listen to the dialogue and noises on the screen. Compared to other forms of media which usually involve only one sense e.g. the radio only requires the farming essays hearing sense and a book only requires sight. Even though the television lets us see and hear things it can cause eyesight problems and many people turn there televisions up which can cause hearing problems. The final advantage is the vast amount of educational programming available for viewing particularly on channels like the smoking thesis discovery channel and national geographic which can educate and stimulate people and wet every audience member's appetite. It is also the fastest way to improve your knowledge and help you learn something completely new. Where else can you learn about Marylyn Monroe and Winston Churchill in the same afternoon? Many people who cannot afford university or night courses or simply just want a basic knowledge of one particular subject or event.
Use documentaries to quench their thirst for learning. Farming Essays. The first disadvantage is that many people do not realise how much time they spend watching television if you spend one hour a day watching television. That is smoking, 365 hours a year and essay, 3607 hours in smoking thesis essay, ten years. You can only imagine what you could do with that time, it is possible to learn a language or do a university course. Many value their television shows over exercise or physical activity which can lead to obesity and 'couch potato'. Many people also feel the desire to of induction motor watch a favourite television show every day or every week and neglect social commitments and therefore becoming anti-social. A second disadvantage is that many people neglect their families so they can watch television.
A family may be in the same room but would not say a word to each other or acknowledge each other. Many families now also eat dinner in front of the television which means normal dinner table conversation is lost. Most large families also have multiple televisions so that each member can watch the programme they would like to watch this means that some families may spend less than an hour in smoking, each others company before going to bed. A final disadvantage of watching television is the violence and sex scenes that young children are often exposed too. Many of us find shows with crime or violence entertaining but these are not suitable for braveheart essay children of young ages. These scenes are practically common on crime dramas. Children may not intentionally be being exposed but by simply being in or near the thesis essay same room as an braveheart older child or adult watching the smoking thesis essay programme. With children being exposed to these scenes it can corrupt there innocent minds leading them in some extreme cases become violent to essay other children. It can also lead to more permanent problems such as violence or evil thoughts well into adulthood.
Fortunately this can be easily avoided or reversed by smoking essay, not allowing young children to view these programmes by placing them in farming essays, a different room from the television or sending them to bed. Smoking Thesis Essay. In conclusion television is perhaps the world's greatest invention though it is possible it will one day be replaced by think and learn, something resembling a computer it is smoking thesis, still indispensable in todays modern world. Television however has advantages and disadvantages as illustrated in this essay. It can be an educational, multi-sensory communication devise that takes up our time to exercise or our family time it can also have scenes that corrupt young minds. As Winston Churchill once said 'the best things are either immoral or bad for you' television is control motor, best in moderation.
So next time you're bored don't turn on the television go out and thesis, play some sport.
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office depot essay Otto Skorzeny, Hitler's commando leader in World War 2, became known to the world in September 1943, when German radio broadcasts hailed the previously unknown Skorzeny as The most dangerous man in Europe for his key role in the daring airborne raid to rescue the ousted Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. It was Skorzeny's 1st success as a commando leader. With the successes that followed, allied media also began calling Skorzeny The most dangerous man in Europe. The unusual making of smoking a commando leader. The son of an Austrian civil engineer, until World War 2 began Skorzeny (1908-1975) lived and essay, worked as an engineer in Vienna, Austria. In 1931 Skorzeny joined the smoking, Austrian branch of the the great gatsby essays on love, Nazi Party, and smoking thesis, remained a loyal Nazi for the rest of his life. There were three seemingly unimportant details in Skorzeny's pre-war life which became important later: In 1934 Skorzeny and his wife spent their honeymoon in think and learn Italy. On March 12, 1938, when Nazi Germany annexed Austria, Skorzeny demonstrated leadership and cold judgement by saving the Austrian president Wilhelm Miklas from being murdered by thesis essay other Austrian Nazis.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner, then the head of the Austrian branch of the Nazi SS, knew Skorzeny and knew of his action in saving Miklas. When World War 2 started in 1939, Skorzeny was immediately recruited, but in the first 3 1/2 years of the war his military career path showed no sign that he would become a commando leader in the two years that followed. Initially assigned to discursive an Air Force technical personnel training class, Skorzeny then passed the admission tests of the all-volunteer elite Waffen SS, the Nazi party's private army, and was assigned to its basic combat training as technical officer candidate. During the thesis, invasion of France in May 1940, Skorzeny mostly chased the war, as an acting technical officer in the heavy artillery unit of the 1st Waffen SS Division, in the trail of the rapidly advancing German forces. A year later Skorzeny participated in the German invasion of Russia as a technical officer in farming essays the 2nd Waffen SS division, Das Reich (The Reich). In Russia, Skorzeny saw some real combat action.
He was awarded the Iron Cross medal, and in thesis essay late 1941 he was injured by shrapnel from Russian artillery rockets. He refused to be evacuated, and continued to gatsby fight with Das Reich in Russia, until the combination of his superficially treated head injury and thesis, disease enforced his evacuation to essay a hospital in Vienna. Once out of hospital, on a medical recovery period, Skorzeny was assigned to a non-combat role in a Waffen SS depot in Berlin. It was a boring role and essay, he wanted to return to the front, but in the meantime, he had many months in Berlin with plenty of spare time to read and to meet with fellow Waffen SS officers. Skorzeny utilized this period to read all the literature that he could find about discursive higher, commando warfare, and to share his ideas about the subject with anyone who would listen to a junior technical officer's ideas about commando warfare.
Skorzeny's main argument, based on his experience in the Russian front, was that the thesis, German army, which demonstrated innovative warfare early in the war, gradually deteriorated to an ordinary war of attrition. His proposed solution was to establish units specialized in control unconventional warfare that will include fighting behind enemy lines, fighting in smoking enemy uniform, sabotage attacks, etc. All that talking eventually paid off, when in discursive essay April 1943 Skorzeny was summoned to the Waffen SS headquarters and smoking thesis essay, was told that the Waffen SS was looking for a technically trained officer to carry out special duties. Think And Learn. Skorzeny accepted immediately, and was promoted to Captain, as the commander of thesis a recently established Waffen SS unit named SS Special Unit Friedenthal, after the location of its barracks at think and learn Friedenthal, near Berlin. Comment: During Skorzeny's tenure as commander (1943-1945), his unit was renamed twice, first to SS Hunters Battalion 502, (the term Hunters denoted a broad range of German light infantry units, from paratroopers to military police), and then in November 1944 to SS Combat Unit Center, and by then it expanded from thesis a small unit to five battalions. Until 1943, the German army did not think that it needed units for unconventional special warfare deep behind enemy lines. Germany had a mighty army, the best in the world then, and it was not restrained by political, diplomatic, or moral constraints. In those years, Adolf Hitler did not have to limit himself to sending commandos to neighbouring countries.
He simply sent his army to invade and occupy them. For military action behind enemy lines during those invasions, two types of units were used, mostly to capture key targets by using the element of surprise, and then to temporarily hold them until relieved by the advancing main German invasion force. On Vector Control Of Induction. These units were the essay, Paratroopers, and the Brandenburg Regiment of the German military intelligence, which utilized soldiers fluent in foreign languages and kataang essay, dressed in enemy uniforms to achieve the smoking, element of surprise. But as Skorzeny argued, this was no longer enough for Germany. The war was increasingly turning against it, and it could no longer quickly occupy enemy territories.
This finally brought the farming essays, need for a military unit capable of extended activity deep behind enemy lines. Since such activity was considered a military extension of the espionage and essay, sabotage activities done by spies, the think and learn, new unit was going to work for the Ausland-SD (Foreign Security Department), the espionage branch of the essay, RSHA, the security organization within the Nazi SS that included the GESTAPO (secret police), the SD (internal security), the Ausland-SD (foreign espionage), criminal investigations, and the Einsatzgruppen (death squads in charge of the mass murder of entire population groups in the occupied countries). Simply put, Skorzeny's new unit belonged to the military branch of the SS, and provided its military-scale sabotage and farming essays, attack capabilities to the espionage branch of the SS, where such capabilities, greater than those of spies, were required. In early 1943, the SS was looking for thesis the right man, among its officers, to lead its new special unit. They wanted a person with a combination of the great gatsby on love leadership, good judgement in sensitive situations, combat experience, technical skills, and fanatic Nazi loyalty. Skorzeny's name was apparently suggested by no other than Ernst Kaltenbrunner, who by 1943 was the head of the RSHA. Kaltenbrunner knew Skorzeny from their pre-war years in smoking thesis Vienna, and he must have remembered how Skorzeny, the Nazi engineer, demonstrated unusually good political judgement, and leadership, in thesis saving the Austrian president from his trigger-happy SS fellows on that night in 1938. By 1943 Skorzeny was a decorated Waffen-SS officer with a combat experience, a man who demonstrated courage and dedication, was fanatically loyal, and also advocated that Germany needs to establish unconventional warfare units. Kaltenbrunner knew that although the thesis essay, 35 years old Skorzeny was just a Lieutenant then, he found the man he was looking for. Skorzeny began training his men for their intended special missions, repeatedly telling them that in on vector motor their special type of warfare behind enemy lines, not shooting , as much as possible, should be their most important guideline. He intended to impose following that guideline in future action by running ahead of my men, and smoking essay, not firing my own gun.
Operation Oak to find and rescue Mussolini. On July 26, 1943, Skorzeny and kataang essay, his unit were fully ready for smoking thesis action, when Hitler learned that his political and military ally and friend Benito Mussolini, the Fascist dictator of Italy, was ousted and thesis, arrested by his countrymen. The Italian people got tired of their failing megalomaniac dictator, who was much better in words than in deeds. In four years of essay war, Italy lost its territories in North Africa and in East Africa. Sicily, its large island in the South, was occupied by The Allies, and an allied invasion of Italy's mainland was imminent. Overthrowing Mussolini was quick and discursive, bloodless. The king summoned him to his villa, told Mussolini that the people hates him and he must go, and when Mussolini stepped out of the king's office, he was arrested. The king appointed Pietro Badoglio, a former politician and army Chief of smoking essay Staff, as the new temporary Prime Minister. Hitler was terribly furious about these news. He was so furious not just because his fellow dictator and friend was overthrown, but also because there was very little he could do about it. He could not retaliate by invading Italy, because Italy was still his ally in the war, and the new Italian government immediately assured him that they remain loyal allies, which they did, for a while.
It was clear to both sides that the think and learn, new Italian government was quietly looking for thesis essay a way to switch sides in the war, to end its long alliance with Nazi Germany, and to most likely deliver the arrested Mussolini to The Allies as a gesture. Essay. But so far Italy kept fighting shoulder to shoulder with the German military, which was already deployed in large numbers in Italy. All that Hitler could do, was to try to find where the smoking essay, Italians were hiding Mussolini before they delivered him to The Allies, and only then act to farming essays rescue him, in order to put him back in smoking essay power by force, this time as a German puppet backed by German military power. So on farming essays, the day after Mussolini's arrest, Otto Skorzeny and smoking essay, five other commanders of Germany's most elite military units, were urgently summoned to Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair), Hitler's heavily guarded command post in the forests of East Prussia. Once there, the six officers, of thesis on vector control motor which Skorzeny was of the lowest rank, met Adolf Hitler. Hitler did not tell them why they were summoned. Instead, after each of them presented himself, Hitler simply asked each of them two questions: Are you familiar with Italy ? What do you think of smoking Italy ? To the braveheart essay, 1st question, only Skorzeny answered 'Yes', referring to thesis essay his honeymoon in Italy nine years earlier. To the 2nd question, while the kataang essay, other five officers gave politically correct answers about Italy being an Ally and thesis essay, so on, Skorzeny decided to gamble and the great essays on love, answered just: I am an Austrian, Fuhrer.
It was a short answer that said a lot. Skorzeny knew that Hitler, also originally Austrian, will understand that he was thinking of the smoking thesis essay, traditional hostility between Austria and on love, Italy, which increased after World War I. The gamble paid off. Smoking. Hitler dismissed the other officers, and after they left, he told Skorzeny what really happened in essay structure higher Italy (German news media reported that Mussolini resigned for poor health), and told him that he entrusts him with a mission of the highest strategic importance, to rescue Mussolini before he will be delivered to The Allies. For both convenience and secrecy, for the duration of the mission, Skorzeny was placed under the command of essay General Kurt Student, the commander of the German Paratroopers Corps, who was also sent to think and learn Italy that day with a large force of elite Paratroopers, for the same reason, but also to prepare to occupy Rome by force if necessary. Skorzeny was to pose as General Student's adjutant. After meeting with Student in Wolfsschanze that night, Skorzeny phoned his deputy, Karl Radl, and told him that they were given a mission that can not be discussed over the phone, and asked him to prepare, by dawn, a very long list of smoking essay every kind of special equipment imaginable, from thesis on vector motor guns and explosives to black hair color and monk robes. Radl was also instructed to select forty of Friedenthal's best men, including all those who spoke Italian, and also bring with him ten secret agents from the smoking essay, Ausland-SD headquarters, and ordered that all will be dressed as paratroopers. They all flew to the German military headquarters outside Rome.
In the seven weeks that followed, Skorzeny participated in the German intelligence gathering group effort to the great gatsby on love locate Mussolini and to smoking plan a rescue operation. During those weeks, the suspicious Italians moved Mussolini to a different location three times, to prevent such a rescue attempt. Think And Learn. Three times the Germans located where Mussolini was held, and three times he was moved before they raided the location. Mussolini was first transferred to the tiny island Ponza, off Naples. Then he was moved to the tiny island La Maddalena, near Sardinia, where one of Skorzeny's Italian speaking commandos reported that he saw Mussolini from smoking thesis a distance in an isolated villa. Farming Essays. Skorzeny then flew in smoking thesis a bomber to take aerial photos of the location. The bomber was shot down by allied fighters, but Skorzeny and think and learn, the bomber's crew were rescued by smoking thesis essay an Italian destroyer.
Mussolini's new location was picked by Herbert Kappler, the police attache in the German embassy in Rome, who intercepted a seemingly unimportant Italian police radio transmission referring to security preparations around Gran Sasso, the highest mountain in the Italian Apennines. Kappler immediately guessed that Mussolini is held in the ski hotel at the top of Gran Sasso, that was only accessible by cable car from the valley below. Further intelligence hints convinced the Germans that Mussolini might be on Gran Sasso. The Germans had to really hurry now, since on kataang essay, September 3, 1943, The Allies invaded the Italian mainland, on September 8, Italy surrendered, and a day later The Allies landed further North, at Salerno, near Naples. Italy was not yet an smoking thesis, enemy of Germany, but no longer its ally. Time was short. German preparations to rescue Mussolini from Gran Sasso were also minimal because of heavy allied air bombardments on the German bases near Rome. Skorzeny flew again in a bomber, this time over farming essays Gran Sasso, and smoking thesis, took pictures of it with a plain handheld camera. Braveheart Essay. When he returned, an smoking, attack plan was quickly designed by General Student, Harald Mors (one of Student's paratrooper battalion commanders), and Skorzeny. The plan was simple, but not easy: Twelve DFS 230 assault gliders, each carrying 9 troops and a pilot, will be released from tow aircraft over Gran Sasso at a rate of one glider every minute. Each glider pilot will then have to struggle against thesis motor, the strong and unpredictable wind conditions above the thesis essay, 9500ft summit in an attempt to land on the tiny patch of straight soil next to discursive structure the ski hotel, that was surrounded by steep slopes from all directions.
Once on the ground, the smoking, troops will storm the kataang essay, ski hotel, where it was assumed that Mussolini was held, in an attempt to get to thesis essay Mussolini before the surprised guards will have time to kataang essay shoot him. Smoking Thesis Essay. Then, the Italian guards will have to be defeated and the mountain summit secured. Essays. A secondary force will simultaneously arrive by trucks to the lower cable car station at smoking the base of the mountain and will secure it. Mussolini will then be flown off the Gran Sasso by a Storch light aircraft. The glider-borne assault force, a total of 108 troops, was comprised of 81 paratroopers in kataang essay 9 gliders, and Skorzeny with 25 of his men, and one guest, in 3 gliders.
Skorzeny's guest was General Fernando Soleti of the thesis, Italian military police, who was kidnapped by Skorzeny's men and forced to board Skorzeny's glider. The idea was that his presence in the raid could further confuse the surprised Italian guards. There was no time to arrange maps for the pilots, who arrived to Italy just before the raid, so they were instructed to just follow the lead aircraft, piloted by Student's intelligence officer. Despite serious difficulties before and think and learn, after it, the raid, on September 12, 1943, was a complete success. A few Italians and Germans were injured, but nobody was killed. Skorzeny's glider was initially the 2nd in the row, but the essay, lead tow aircraft, with the discursive essay structure, only pilot who knew how to navigate to Gran Sasso, had to abandon the lead, and Skorzeny's tow pilot suddenly found himself leading, but without a map. Thesis. Skorzeny then used his knife to cut a small window in the glider's bottom, that was enough for him to successfully navigate to the great Gran Sasso, based on his memory of the smoking essay, flight path from kataang essay his aerial photo flight a day earlier, and by passing navigation instructions to the glider pilot in front of him, who relayed them by smoking thesis cable to the tow aircraft's pilot. Once on structure higher, the ground, after landing near the thesis essay, ski hotel, Skorzeny ran forward, pushing General Soleti in front of him, looking for think and learn a door, when he saw Mussolini looking at him from a 2nd floor window. This was helpful, since he now knew exactly where to go. Skorzeny shouted to Mussolini to get inside, to avoid being hit by possible shots, and then charged into the hotel. The surprised Italian guards were further confused by General Soleti who shouted at smoking them to essay avoid shooting, and less than a minute later Skorzeny broke into Mussolini's room and disarmed his two guards, as two more of his men came in from the window after climbing the wall.
Once Mussolini was secured in his room, Skorzeny saluted him and declared that he was sent by Adolf Hitler to release him. Within a few minutes, all the Italian guards in smoking thesis essay the ski hotel and the upper cable car station were disarmed without a single shot being fired. Kataang Essay. At the same time the Germans took over the lower cable car station after a short fire fight, and by the time of the smoking, last glider landing, the one that crashed, Mussolini was already out of the hotel, waiting for structure higher the Storch light aircraft that will fly him to safety. The Storch, a small two seater light aircraft, was flown by Captain Heinrich Gerlach, General Student's personal pilot. Essay. After Gerlach landed, the big Skorzeny insisted to also board the tiny two seater aircraft, and placed himself in the small cargo bay behind Mussolini's seat. Skorzeny later explained this action in saying that he was not willing to risk a situation in which after a successful rescue he will face Hitler only to report that Mussolini was rescued but then crashed on the slopes of the braveheart essay, Gran Sasso. He preferred to die in such a crash too. Captain Gerlach, the pilot, had his own doubts about the chances of a successful takeoff, since in addition to having an incredibly short and rocky runway that ended in an abyss, that runway was also cut in the middle by a deep ditch that was not seen in the aerial photos that Skorzeny took a day earlier. With Mussolini and Skorzeny onboard, Gerlach told the paratroopers to hold the thesis, small aircraft in the great gatsby place while he increased the engine's power to the maximum, and then signalled them to let go, and the small aircraft ran forward. When he reached the ditch, Gerlach pulled the stick to raise the aircraft a few inches in the air before it descended back to the ground after the smoking thesis essay, ditch, and essay structure higher, gained a little more speed before it fell down to smoking the abyss at the end of the runway. With nerves of steel, Gerlach let the small aircraft dive down just over the steep mountain slope, and then slowly pulled the stick to level in the valley below, keeping the aircraft at tree top level to evade possible enemy fighters.
He didn't tell his two passengers that the engine was damaged in the bumpy takeoff and was not fully functional. They landed in a German controlled air base near Rome, where Mussolini and Skorzeny immediately transferred to a German bomber that flew them to Vienna, and from there Mussolini was flown to meet Hitler in Wolfsschanze that same day. There were well deserved honors for all the key players. Discursive Structure. Skorzeny was promoted to Major and was awarded the Knight's Cross, and became famous. Kappler, the smoking essay, German police attache, was also both promoted and decorated. Captain Gerlach, the Storch's Pilot, was awarded the Knight's Cross for performing one of the most difficult takeoffs in the history of aviation. Others among the pilots, paratroopers, intelligence personnel, and Skorzeny's deputy, were either promoted or decorated. The most complete and fully detailed report of Operation Oak, including a full background, can be found in Greg Annussek's book Hitler's Raid To Save Mussolini (Da Capo Press, 2005), which reads almost like a Tom Clancy fiction book, but is entirely documentary. Following their success in rescuing Mussolini, Skorzeny and his commandos returned to their base and gatsby essays on love, continued training. Smoking Thesis Essay. Skorzeny now expanded his unit, and also gradually received control over other German special units, including the Navy's underwater sabotage divers and midget submarine units, and since May 1944 also of the Air Force's suicide ground attack unit, the German equivalent of the Japanese Kamikaze, called the Leonidas squadron. The Leonidas Squadron was made of volunteer suicide pilots, supposed to fly a manned version of the V-1 cruise missile that will be carried to the target area by bombers of KG 200, the Luftwaffe's special missions air wing.
On July 20, 1944, when a group of senior German army officers attempted to overthrow the braveheart, Nazi regime in Berlin following their failed attempt to thesis assassinate Hitler at Wolfsschanze, Skorzeny played a role in saving the Nazi regime. Once informed of the rebellion, he hurried, as instructed, to the SD headquarters in Berlin. He calmed the panic there, called a company of his men to secure the building, and then went to on vector control motor the Armor Corps headquarters, which controlled the smoking, most powerful unit in Berlin, the tank training school, which had tanks. The school's tanks already rolled into discursive essay structure, Berlin's streets in response to orders given by the rebel officers, but were already ordered to avoid fighting and behave as in ordinary training, making them useless to the rebels. After supporting the Armor Corps duty officer's decision to thesis essay obey only orders from his normal chain of command, Skorzeny went to General Student's home in Berlin, where the two officers called Goering for further instrcutions. Skorzeny then returned to the SD headquarters, and think and learn, with a group of armed SD agents he went to the rebels' headquarters in the Reserve Army headquarters building, where the rebel leaders where already arrested and some already executed. Thesis Essay. Skorzeny took control there, stopped the essay, executions, transferred the thesis, remaining arrested rebels to a GESTAPO prison, and structure, then remained in the Reserve Army headquarters as acting commander for the next 36 hours until relieved. Since then, Hitler trusted and appreciated Skorzeny even more. Three months later, the army's Brandenburg Regiment was dismantled, and most of its men, foreign language speakers specialized in fighting behind enemy lines disguised as enemy soldiers, were transferred to Skorzeny's expanding unit, where they played a key role in its last special operation. In October 1944, when Miklos Horthy, the Hungarian dictator and Hitler's ally, was secretly negotiating a surrender to smoking thesis Russia, Hitler sent Skorzeny's unit to force Horthy to kataang essay stop. Skorzeny's men kidnapped Horthy's son and transferred him by plane to Germany.
When that failed to convince Horthy to stop, Skorzeny's men went to smoking the guarded citadel where Horthy was, and with a combination of kataang essay words and gunfire, Skorzeny took over the citadel, and replaced Horthy with a new pro-German prime minister. Back from thesis essay Hungary, Hitler promoted Skorzeny to Lieutenant Colonel and gave him a new mission. As part of the planned German offensive in the Ardennes in the last days of 1944 (The Battle of the Bulge), Hitler suggested that Skorzeny's English speaking men will infiltrate behind Allied lines dressed and equipped as American soldiers, in order to create mass confusion in The Allies side in support of the German attack. In addition to braveheart essay captured allied Jeeps, the Germans used Panther tanks and other German vehicles repainted and modified to smoking look like Allied vehicles. For the duration of that operation, Skorzeny was given command of a makeshift unit named the 150th SS Panzer Brigade. Hitler's idea was successful. In addition to the direct damage caused by the actions of Skorzeny's phony American soldiers, which posed mostly as American military policemen, the news and rumors of their activity spread rapidly among Allied units and caused a reaction that was much more damaging. Traffic of Allied officers of kataang essay all ranks and of reinforcements and supplies, was seriously slowed down by the sudden need to repeatedly stop at checkpoint after checkpoint and identify as genuine Americans, and not just by essay presenting identification papers but also by having to answer American Trivia questions, because of the control, obvious suspicion that the essay, disguised Germans also carry phony American papers. When some of Skorzeny's soldiers were captured, they told their interrogators that their mission was to reach Paris and assassinate the Allied supreme commander, General Eisenhower.
This was a lie, but they also said that their commander was Skorzeny, which was true, and since Skorzeny's record with regard to foreign leaders was well known, it was immediately believed that Skorzeny was trying to get to Eisenhower, and as a result Eisenhower was confined to his office for kataang essay a long time, massively guarded. Skorzeny considered Operation Greif a failure. Smoking Thesis Essay. Because of delays, only a small number of essay his men actually infiltrated behind the smoking thesis essay, Allied lines, and the rest, most of his unit, had to think and learn fight as regular soldiers. In February 1945, Otto Skorzeny demonstrated his command skills for the last time, successfully holding a German defense line on smoking essay, the Oder river, 50mi East of Berlin, for a critical period. Hitler summoned Skorzeny again, awarded him the Knight's Cross with oak leaves, and sent him to an inspection tour along the rapidly collapsing German East front. Two days before Hitler committed suicide in his bunker in essay Berlin, Skorzeny was given his last mission, to go to Bavaria in southern Germany and command the German forces there in a last battle to the bitter end, as part of what was called The Alpine Fortress, but when he got there, there was nothing left to command. Ten days later the thesis, war ended, and Skorzeny, The most dangerous man in Europe, surrendered. His commando unit, separately sent to The Alpine Fortress, surrendered in Linz, Hitler's home town in thesis control motor Austria. In the post-war Nuremberg Trials, Skorzeny was accused of war crimes for Operation Greif, but was acquitted after a senior British special operations officer testified that Allied special forces had also sometimes fought in smoking thesis enemy uniform.
After his release from POW camp was delayed for think and learn a long time, Skorzeny escaped, and reached the Fascist Spain. Essay. He then moved to Argentina, where he was employed as security advisor and bodyguard. He also advised Nasser, the dictator of Egypt. Farming Essays. Eventually Otto Skorzeny returned to his pre-war occupation as a civil engineer and established a successful construction company in Spain that made him a multi-millionaire. He died in 1975.
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On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style . Click the style that you want to use for smoking essay, the citation and source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources. Kataang Essay? Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite. Smoking? On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Insert Citation . On Love? Do one of the smoking thesis essay following: To add the source information, click Add New Source , then begin to fill in the source information by farming essays, clicking the arrow next to Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder . A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager. Fill in the bibliography information for the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box. Now you can create your bibliography. If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for your sources and a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to the year. For example, a citation would appear as [Pasteur, 1848a].
If you choose ISO 690-Numerical Reference and your citations still don't appear consecutively, you must click the ISO 690 style again, and then press ENTER to correctly order the citations. Add additional citations from a previously used source. You can easily access citations you added previously. In fact, you can reuse them throughout your document. It's simple. Place the smoking thesis cursor where you want to farming essays, insert a citation, and smoking thesis essay click References Insert Citation . Find the citation by the Author or Tag name , and select the gatsby citation. Tip: You can insert a placeholder if you need to look up a citation later. Smoking? Click References Insert Citation . Click Add New Placeholder , and create a unique Tag name . Find the Placeholder in your content, and click the text to Edit Source details.
Now that you’ve inserted one or more citations and sources in your document you can create your bibliography. Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Bibliography . Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the essay bibliography into the document. The list of essay sources that you use can become quite long. Kataang Essay? At times you might search for a source that you cited in another document by smoking, using the Manage Sources command. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List . Kataang Essay? If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List . All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List . To find a specific source, do one of the following: In the smoking thesis essay sorting box, sort by author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the think and learn resulting list for the source that you want to smoking thesis essay, find. In the Search box, type the title or author for discursive essay higher, the source that you want to find. Thesis Essay? The list dynamically narrows to match your search term. Note: You can click the Browse button in braveheart essay, Source Manager to smoking, select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document. For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is hosted by farming essays, a university or research institution. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List , select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit . Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Current List and click Edit . In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and click OK . Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and then wait until later to fill in the complete bibliography source information.
Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. A question mark appears next to smoking essay, placeholder sources in Source Manager. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . Under Current List , click the placeholder that you want to edit. Note: Placeholder sources are alphabetized in Source Manager, along with all other sources, based on the placeholder tag name. By default, placeholder tag names contain the thesis control motor word Placeholder and a number, but you can customize the placeholder tag name with whatever tag you want. Begin to fill in smoking essay, the source information by kataang essay, clicking the smoking thesis essay arrow next to Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. Fill in essays on love, the bibliography information for the source.
To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.
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Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the placement of the fields, the punctuation, any formatting and indicate under what conditions the field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about each field in each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style. Use any examples in the Instructions to thesis Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area. Discursive Higher. The generic reference type is smoking essay used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for think and learn, references that are in a single language.
You have the essay option to add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in more than one language). To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the farming essays formatting from the Generic type to the other types. From there you only need to make modifications as necessary. • In the Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to create.
Notice that the thesis essay Output Field Order box is discursive essay structure now empty. • Verify that Generic appears in the Copy Fields from list. Use this feature as a quick way to define various reference types. Copy from the reference type that most closely matches the type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to define Book, Section you can copy from thesis essay, Book, Whole then make any needed modifications. Tip: If you are creating the output style for a publication in the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to a Book example. If you are creating an output style for discursive structure, the Sciences, we suggest making the smoking thesis essay Generic format similar to a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the essays on love fields available for the Reference Type, Generic . (The fields change depending on the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and thesis click the think and learn right arrow icon to move it to the Output Field Order box. Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to appear. Under Preview of smoking thesis essay, Bibliography Output , click the Update button to see the fields you have added. You need to click the think and learn Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in order to essay see the updated information.
Under Output Field Order , select a field and look at the Field Settings displayed to the right of the window. Click through the various fields and notice how the Field Settings change to guide you through the format defining process. The first group of settings determines the formatting of the farming essays field itself as opposed to the format of the elements within the field. Smoking. You also designate in the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the source type in the reference is farming essays set to print or when the source type is set to electronic. In some cases, such as Volume , there is very little to essay establish. In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined. Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character. Tip : Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for discursive essay structure higher, defining a periodical are listed below. This will help you become familiar with the smoking different types of options available for the various fields.
Tip : A word about punctuation used throughout a reference type – punctuation is normally included with the field it is used with, however, in some instances you will need to include the punctuation with the field that precedes or follows. RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is no information for the field in gatsby essays, a particular record. If you have defined the field setting to smoking include the braveheart punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for smoking thesis essay, it. So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to thesis on vector control of induction motor include punctuation for a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is thesis essay a good example. It generally appears at the great gatsby essays the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the thesis essay punctuation for the field before page number in the “precede with” area of the page field setting.). You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming. On Vector Control Of Induction Motor. We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the information you have imported into RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for odd punctuation as well. Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator) Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the smoking thesis essay formatting or output.
Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. The number of author names to be included in the bibliography. You can include all of the names or some portion of them. Selecting Include All overrides the other settings. Essay. Enter 2 in the If more, show first box and select Italic. Click Update and see the display change to two authors and display the et al in italics. By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in place of author names if the author field in a reference is left blank. If you want to insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and type Unknown.
If you want the field left blank, delete Anonymous and don't replace it with anything. If you want to replace the author with the title, click the Use Title box. Varies depending upon where the thesis separator is located (i.e., between first and second author or between the second and think and learn third author, etc.). In our example under If only 2 use , press the spacebar type and (without the quote marks) then press the spacebar again. Smoking Essay. It will display as ( and ). You need to include a space on each side of the and or the control result will be John JonesandBob Smith. Leave the comma in thesis essay, the If more than 2 use box and in the Before Last box. Farming Essays. Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and after the and.
These settings may be different than the settings for subsequent authors. Under Name select the correct order of the names for the output style. For example, if the style requires names to be last name first followed by a comma and space, then the first name and middle name, select Last, First Middle. The Initial box determines the format of the thesis essay name. For example, if the gatsby essays on love first name should be a full name and middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in uppercase or Entire name in uppercase).
These options determine the setting for all names after the smoking first author. Braveheart Essay. In many formats, the smoking thesis essay first author is essay Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author in essay, a reference that contains only one author. If, as in our case, author is the first field in the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank. If you want to follow the author with a period, leave the period in the Follow With box. Keep in essays, mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and Follow With option. If you have Follow With characters of a period and a space and a Precede With in the very next field of a space what will actually show between the thesis essay two fields will be a period and two spaces. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author field in a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)
Enter any information you would like to gatsby include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Uppercase capitalizes the thesis essay entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and Lowercase format all of the characters as lowercase, even the first word in the title (e.g., this is the entire title). Title case capitalizes the first letter of the first word and all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the Entire Title). Words not capitalized in kataang essay, Title case include certain articles, prepositions and conjunctions such as a, an, and the. Sentence case capitalizes the first word of the title only (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . When None is selected, RefWorks will print the thesis title EXACTLY as it is structure entered in your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.).
Enter any information you would like to smoking thesis include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and farming essays enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting, select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the thesis appropriate option from the Case Setting box.
Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and an abbreviated name. For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol. There are several options for the periodical name format. To choose to have a preference in using the full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Or, you may specify using only one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and thesis of induction want a particular mark to thesis follow it add the mark to the Follow abbreviations with box.
Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields. Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Options for these fields are very similar. Kataang Essay. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to the field. RefWorks adds the appropriate suffix for essay, the number.
Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and motor enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to smoking precede or follow the essay structure field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Vol. in the precedes area). Smoking. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if the issue should appear as (1), you need to include a left parentheses ( in the Precedes With area and a right parentheses ) in the Follow With area. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the thesis on vector field. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Enter any preceding characters (fore example “p.” might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the essay p. Kataang Essay. if needed) . Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to show 149-159, select Full End Page, for the output to be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for essay, 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to essays on love separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to essay an output style allows you to type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript. Simply type the text in the Text to discursive structure insert box and thesis click the box next to the appropriate format.
One common use for this is in the Book, Section reference type. Thesis On Vector Control Of Induction. A book section frequently requires you to smoking thesis include information on farming essays, the book itself as well as the section information. You may need to create a format like: Book Section Title. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in thesis essay, the Text to insert box and select Italic as the formatting option. All other fields with the exception of Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words. Some of these fields may be useful for various reasons. For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for kataang essay, a particular class you may want to thesis include the notes field for reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for the Generic type.
In general the Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the control of induction Copy feature discussed above. If you selected Book for example, the Generic Reference is now patterned after the Book Reference Type. In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the overall layout of the thesis essay bibliography. Verify that you are in the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to expand and control of induction motor display the thesis settings options.
Select the appropriate sort order for the bibliography. In Order They Are Cited. References are listed in the order they are cited in the paper. All Authors, Year Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year. References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by the great on love, title. All Authors Title. References are first sorted by the entire Author field. References with the same authors are then sorted by title. First Author, Year Other Authors.
References are sorted by the first author only, then, for references with the same first author, by year. Essay. References with the same first author and year are then sorted based upon essay all other authors. First Author, Number of smoking essay, Authors Year. References are sorted by the first author only and then by the number of authors in the reference. For example, if the first author is the same, references with three authors sort before references with four. References with the same first author and the same number of authors are then sorted by year. Author, Year Ascending Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year with the oldest first.
References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title (MLA) This sort combines all authors and titles (for references with no author) into on vector control motor, one sort. Other sorts place references without authors at the top of the list. Title, Year descending.
References are sorted first by title and smoking then by year with most recent articles at the top. Periodical, Year descending. Sorts by periodical name and on vector of induction motor then by smoking, year with the most recent at the top. Year descending, Author. Sorts first by year with the discursive structure higher most recent at smoking thesis the top and kataang essay within the smoking essay same year by the great gatsby essays, author. Year descending, Title. Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and smoking essay within the same year by title. Year descending, Periodical.
Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and thesis on vector control of induction motor within the same year by periodical name. Year ascending, Title. Sorts first by year with the oldest at smoking thesis the top and within the same year by title. Sorts references by the ID number. If the think and learn bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the title in the Reference List Title box. The title is automatically centered on the page when you view or print the smoking essay document. Select Include empty fields in the reference output if, for example, you want the kataang essay page number field included in the bibliography even if there is no page number in the reference.
If you do not select this option, RefWorks automatically takes out empty fields. Smoking Thesis Essay. Most output styles do not call for empty fields to think and learn be included, so this option should be cleared. Select Apply APA Rules for Electronic Source field inclusion if your style should follow the new APA guidelines that require inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, in the bibliography. When this option is smoking thesis essay selected, RefWorks will look for farming essays, Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information for smoking, the reference and farming essays print that first. If there is no DOI in the reference, then the RefWorks will print the information in the Links and the Retrieved Date fields. If there is no DOI or Links information, RefWorks will print the Database information for smoking thesis, a particular reference.
This applies to all reference types except Unpublished Material and Web Pages. Braveheart Essay. For Unpublished Material the Database and Retrieved Date will print if there is thesis no DOI or Links. For Web Pages, the the great gatsby Accessed Date and Database will print if there is no DOI or Links. Smoking Thesis. Note: This setting only think and learn applies to references where the Source Type field is set to Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the appropriate indent. Select Normal if the first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the spacing to apply to all lines within the reference. Essay. Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in the bibliography. Make the appropriate selection from the drop-down box for consecutive works by the same author. In some cases it may be appropriate to substitute dashes for the author names. Enter the thesis on vector control appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference. For example, you may want to follow each reference with a period.
Text After Bibliography could be used to specify punctation for all bibliography entries. Placing the ending punctuation in the bibliography settings would eliminate the need to thesis essay include ending punctuation for of induction, every defined reference type.