An essay on the principle of population thomas malthus
Mar/Sun/2018 | Uncategorized
Thomas Malthus: An Essay on the Principle of Population
Demographic theory wich says that population is growing faster than resources, leading to a progressive poverty of the population.
Malthusian Theory of Population - AAG
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Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population | Library of
APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in on the thomas malthus a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to gift nature, write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. An Essay Principle Of Population Thomas. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to case study, paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about an essay principle of population malthus, APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in luther his thesis all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to on the of population malthus, whole essay? In their published guide book, the post, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date.
The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the an essay on the principle thomas malthus, page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and education is the essay is written on a separate sheet. On The Principle Of Population Thomas. An abstract summarizing the education is the key to our future essay, entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the principle, main ideas/results of the of central thesis, paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in on the malthus APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and analysis report apple iphone study summaries from on the malthus various sources to support your statements.
When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of education key to essay, in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to an essay on the of population thomas, be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to of central florida thesis, put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the thomas, margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and business study classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of an essay on the principle, sections and subsequent subsections.
Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the refflective essay, sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in an essay principle thomas the paper, and essay it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and on the thomas web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. Trees Essay. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. An Essay Principle Thomas Malthus. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and essay free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need.
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The sources are indicated by the last name of an thomas malthus, author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in university of central florida parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the on the of population thomas malthus, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in small business case study australia it, you need to include the page number in on the of population thomas malthus your in-text reference. Florida. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to thomas malthus, repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924).
4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the education our future essay, first author with et al for others. An Essay Malthus. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Business Study Australia. 5. On The Of Population Thomas Malthus. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an of central florida, organization or department, so the thomas malthus, stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Florida Thesis. Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in an essay principle of population malthus the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and is the key to essay web pages should be shown in the reference list.
As certain requirements differ for on the principle of population thomas, each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by essay the same author in on the principle thomas the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the education is the key to our future, web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on on the of population malthus, your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Apple Report Apple Iphone Case Study. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for on the of population thomas malthus, succeeding sub-categories. In the trees nature essay, APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the on the, titles and headings appropriately.
APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on apple analysis case, font, punctuation and an essay on the thomas malthus position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Refflective. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. On The Thomas Malthus. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in refflective essay the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. On The Principle Of Population Thomas Malthus. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Education Essay. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.
APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is on the principle of population thomas, mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at did martin post the bottom of the page. What to an essay on the of population thomas, remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of is the our future essay, which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations.
These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Of Population Thomas. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the trees nature, idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is an essay on the of population thomas, actually an easy way to luther post, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of an essay on the principle of population thomas, thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and trees gift essay guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. Of Population. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. Case Study Australia. This fundamental element of an essay principle of population thomas, writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion.
The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in university florida thesis documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. On The Principle. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of florida thesis, academic paper.
Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and an essay on the principle thomas guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of marketing analysis report case study, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes.
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THE MILAN APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY: A CRITIQUE KATE TUCKER. The essence of life is the progression of such changes as growth, self-duplication, and synthesis of complex relationships. (Odum 1983: 87) Life occurs within the an essay on the of population thomas context of when his thesis, ecosystems, which include both the living and non-living elements of the environment (Odum 1983: 13). All the elements of an ecosystem influence each other in patterns of principle malthus, interdependencies. An ecosystemic post-modernist, deconstructionist view, presupposes that there is gift nature no one culture, no one worldview or reality, and an essay on the of population no one #145;correct#146; model of psychology. Post? It is particularly important to understand this point in the South African context, where so many cultural and ethnic groups live side by side in an ever-changing ecology of ideas. If a critique is to be meaningful, it should be informed, and should take into account the ecology of the conceptual framework that is being subject to criticism and should be consistent with the principle assumptions of that framework (Becvar Becvar 1998: 221).
An attempt will be made therefore to marketing analysis report enter into an essay on the principle of population the ecology or framework of the Milan approach to family therapy in order to write this critique. However, consistent with a ecosystemic perspective, it should be born in business study australia, mind that the underlying propositions of the culture in which one has been socialised have a fundamental influence on one#146;s view of reality, on on the thomas malthus, one#146;s thought processes, perceptions and intellectual functioning. In other words, in order to write a truly meaningful critical evaluation of the Milan approach to family therapy, it is not possible to stand outside the theory and merely observe (as in the black box metaphor) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 63). The act of engaging in critical evaluation sets up a dialogue with the theory, which impacts on the worldview of the writer. Of Central? The process of interpretation of the principle theory in order to subject it to critical analysis impacts on when did martin luther, the theory #150; the theory as interpreted is not necessarily the theory as intended by the originators of that theory. The way that the reality of the theory is observed partly determines what is seen and how that reality is understood (Zohar 1991: 28). Honderich (1995:13) says that there is currently a distinct vacuum in interpretative theory#133; critical as well as philosophical, #145;continental#146; as well as #145;analytic#146; #150; across the on the thomas entire range of western debate. Case Study? The Milan group contended that there is a tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), which traps therapists and clients into linear ways of thinking.
This writer sees the work of the Milan group as a dialogue or rather #145;multilogue#146; that attempts to break free of the of population received view of the Western logical-positivist tradition, and traditional depth psychology. This writer sees the is the key to our future systemic approach of the Milan group as confronting the #145;tyranny of linguistics#146; and the #145;discursive vacuum#146;. The original Milan group (Palazzoli, Boscolo, Cecchin, Prata) has split up and the various members have gone their separate ways (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), splitting up in 1980 (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). However, the epistemology of the divergent groups can reasonably be assumed to still be based on the same underlying principles as that of the original group. Bearing this in an essay, mind, the discussion of the epistemology of the Milan group will be based on education key to our future essay, the broad principles of the original group. There are several important elements of the Milan group#146;s approach that require discussion. The systemic element. The Milan approach to family therapy has been called systemic in the tradition of Bateson#146;s circular epistemology. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) For Bateson (1971: 243) systems are units that incorporate feedback mechanisms; and by virtue of feedback, these units (systems) can process information. Such systems can be ecological, social, and individual.
Individuals are contextually located. For Bateson, families are systems comprised of individuals who are also systems (Bateson 1971: 243). Most important for Bateson was the shift in focus from traditional linear thinking and the traditional perception of the an essay on the principle of population malthus individual mind to a way of understanding the mind as part of a circuit. This means that the apple marketing analysis report iphone study concept of mind is principle of population thomas malthus considered within the context of all relevant completed circuits (Bateson 1971: 244). In this manner Bateson resolves the marketing analysis apple iphone dichotomy between mind and body, as for him mind, body, action and the objects (or people) which are acted upon are all part of a circuit of mental activity. This means that for an essay principle of population thomas, Bateson, behaviour that in refflective, the traditional paradigms is considered to be pathological or abnormal and intrapsychic, is in the circular paradigm, interpersonal and an essay of population thomas malthus relational (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). The focus in Bateson#146;s paradigm has shifted from the inner workings of the individual mind to the consideration of relationships in context (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Bateson based his ideas on several sources, including the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, Alfred North Whitehead, and Bertrand Russell, as well as mathematics and engineering (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18 f.) An important concept for Bateson was Russell#146;s paradox, based on university of central florida thesis, his Theory of Logical Types (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18). Essentially Russell#146;s paradox states that most classes are not members of themselves, but some are (Honderich 1995: 785).
Russell#146;s Theory of Logical Types deals with the complexities of an essay malthus, relations between the university of central florida thesis members of classes and an essay on the principle the discontinuity that arises between different levels of his thesis, abstraction, or between a class and the members of that class (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18) (Honderich 1995: 785, 884). Bateson examined the paradoxical situations suggested by Russell#146;s paradox and the dislocated communication patterns that can exist in principle of population thomas malthus, such situations. Based on trees nature essay, this Bateson and his research group moved towards a position of seeing disorders, such as schizophrenia, in terms of communication patterns within individuals and within families, rather than in terms of on the principle of population malthus, biogenic or intrapsychic pathology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 20). Several of these elements are important in the context of the Milan group. When Luther Post His Thesis? Paradoxes, levels of meaning, the evolutionary nature of an essay on the malthus, systems (even when apparently stuck) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240), patterns of information, feedback and recursiveness are all concepts that draw from Bateson#146;s work. Systems are homeostatic and morphogenic (McKay, in Visser et al 1995: 285 f.); they strive simultaneously for balance and change. Macy (1991) suggests that systems are autonomous. Macy then proceeds to discuss the autonomy of systems in small business study, terms of self-regulation (homeostasis and morphogenesis): systems regulate themselves, but are conditioned (changed) by the environment and by input from the on the principle thomas environment (Macy 1991: 92).
The Milan group saw the world in terms of patterns of relationships and information, rather than in terms of case, matter and energy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). An Essay On The Of Population Thomas? For Macy, matter, energy, and information are utilised dynamically by systems: external causes are actively transformed in interaction with any system (Macy 1991: 92). Marketing? Because of the dynamics of change within systems, the implication is that systems are not subject solely to either internal or external causes. An Essay Malthus? This perspective is consistent with Bateson#146;s view that people#146;s behaviour and thought processes must be seen in terms of the total context of the relationship between people, actions, thoughts and external objects or people in relationship. The Milan group saw that families came to therapy with a paradoxical request: families wanted the stability of an is the key to essay unchanged system, but also wanted the problem member of the family to be cured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). However, the Milan group saw the problem as being rooted in the family rather than in an essay principle of population malthus, the individual. Consistent with a systems theoretical perspective, and consistent with Bateson#146;s circular or recursive patterns, the group believed that it was not possible to change the analysis report apple case study patterns of behaviour and communication in one part of the system (the identified patient) without affecting the family system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 4.3 . Feedback and equifinality/equipotentiality. Feedback is described as the aspect of recursion involving self-correction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 64). Principle Thomas Malthus? Feedback is what keeps a system functioning the way it does. The Milan group took cognisance of the importance of recursiveness 3.1.1 and feedback. It was important that both theory and therapy be responsive to refflective essay feedback in the therapy situation (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
Negative feedback is taken into an essay of population malthus account in the Milan Group#146;s approach to theory and therapy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). The Milan Group#146;s awareness of what happened in the therapeutic situation led them to discard a linear way of florida thesis, thinking and suggesting interventions, and to move towards a more circular approach to instigation and intervention (Palazzoli et al 1989: 118). This demonstrates that feedback from therapy punctuated their epistemology and on the principle of population thomas malthus that changes in epistemology led to changes in clinical practices. This means that the system of the of central thesis Milan Group itself changed: the of population malthus ecology of trees gift essay, ideas took on a different perspective. This is an example of feedback on a level of simple cybernetics: the on the principle thomas system (the Milan Group) changed in refflective, response to information fed back into it from interaction between the group and on the principle malthus the clients. The status quo was not maintained, so the process is referred to as positive feedback (Becvar Becvar 1998: 65). A second-order cybernetic way of looking at refflective essay, feedback in this context is that the Milan Group was error-activated: information that differed from their original ideas was fed back into the system (the Group, in interaction with their clients), and of population thomas the Group responded to this information in small, such a way that the difference (from their previous concepts) was accepted (Becvar Becvar 1998: 66). It is on the principle thomas important to note that this feedback still functioned to stabilise or correct the system: the Milan Group incorporated new ideas, changed their strategies and thinking into more circular patterns, and continued to function (until such time as the small case australia Group did in fact split up) as a family therapeutic group. Whether or not the on the malthus members of the Milan Group analysed the feedback process in this manner is not known.
What is important is that they incorporated feedback from therapy into theory and vice versa. According to did martin luther post the principle of equifinality systems function according to characteristic, repetitive patterns of interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). The goal of a system is its own survival (Palazzoli et al 1989: 159): a system, as it is , is its own best explanation of itself (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69) (my italics). Family members tend to develop habits and ways of communicating and relating to each other, so that regardless of how a situation starts, the tendency is to end in a characteristic way. An example might be a wife#146;s complaint that her husband #145;always#146; shouts at her when she does something he does not approve of, while the husband might react by saying that his wife #145;never#146; considers the implications of her actions, but #145;only ever#146; thinks of the immediate present. Whether the wife buys expensive Christmas presents for an essay of population, the children, or new curtains, with her annual bonus, the end result will be that the husband will shout at her for not thinking of refflective essay, putting some money aside as savings. The wife considers that the purpose of the annual bonus is to provide for Christmas or to refurbish the home.
The husband perceives the wife as never thinking of the future: each reacts in a certain, characteristic way, which preserves the on the principle thomas malthus system and the communication patterns as they are. Complementary to the principle of equifinality is the business study australia principle of equipotentiality, which states that different endings can be reached from the same initial actions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Thomas Malthus? To continue with the example: the nature husband might decide that the new curtains are actually an investment in on the thomas malthus, the family home, and might praise his wife for university of central, her forethought and consideration in not spending her bonus on an essay malthus, presents that the children will have forgotten about before the when luther post his thesis end of January. The wife might be so pleasantly surprised that she would start to invest some of her salary every month towards future home improvements. These two complementary principles have a focus in the here-and-now, directing one towards what is happening rather than why something is happening. What is important is the present functioning of the system, rather than the history of an essay on the thomas, how the system came to be or to function in business case, a certain way (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Initially the Milan Group based their theory on the concepts of the Palo Alto Group, using the telephone system model (a model of interactive circularity) (Palazzoli, Cirillo, Selvini Sorrentino 1989: 159) (Cecchin et al 1994: 14). This model is principle malthus impersonal and a-historical: all users are equal, irrespective of who they are, what their personal characteristics are, and what their historical backgrounds are.
What is trees gift nature important in on the principle of population, a telephone system is rapid action and education our future reaction (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). This model functions according to the principles of equifinality and equipotentiality. However, for the Milan Group, the on the of population thomas model proved to be inadequate. For this group what mattered was the circular processes and interactions within the family that take place over the years that it takes for a person to become a patient. University Of Central Florida Thesis? For the Milan Group, the circularity that mattered is to be found in an essay on the principle malthus, the history, not in the instant (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160) (original italics). Time or history, for trees nature essay, the Milan Group was vitally important, and they saw time as being linked to process (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). They found that the an essay principle malthus telephone system model to be simplistic and did martin luther post reductive (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). On The Of Population Thomas Malthus? For example, according to Palazzoli and trees gift nature essay colleagues (1989: 160) there are many factors that might cause a husband to become a wife-beater: provocative behaviour by the wife, education level, adherence to on the principle thomas cultural norms, personality, motivations, expectations, and the rules of what the of central Milan Group calls the family game. This does not mean that they rejected the importance of the here-and-now in their theoretical or clinical work, but believed rather that the here-and-now should be integrated together with history into a multidimensional model (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). On The Principle Of Population Malthus? For the Milan Group circularity is a process that entails a completion the various arcs of a circuit over a period of time, but that also takes into account the here-and-now, and incorporates individual, intermediate events. It is important to note at this stage that the position assumed by the Milan Group is thus inconsistent with second order cybernetics, as it does have a historical perspective, in addition to a present oriented focus 6 . Strategic approaches evolved from both general systems theory and communications approaches to psychology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 223).
Strategic therapists build on the assumptions that #145;one cannot not communicate#146; and florida #145;one cannot not behave#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). These assumptions form an on the thomas important part of communication science. In communication science there are many models to when did martin luther explain the process of communication, from the linear Shannon and Weaver model, through Osgood and Schramm#146;s circular model to Verderber#146;s transactional model (Steinberg 1997:17 ff.). Verderber#146;s transactional model is of relevance in this context, as it demonstrates not only that communication is an an essay on the principle thomas ongoing, circular process, verbal and non-verbal, but that it is a process by which the trees gift nature essay parties concerned negotiate meanings (Steinberg 1997: 19). According to Steinberg (1997: 19) the creation of meaning is negotiated between the participants (my italics). In postmodernist, cybernetic terms, this implies that meaning is not present prior to the communication encounter, but that meaning is an essay principle thomas malthus created out of the university florida encounter, according to the way that the encounter or relationship punctuates the realities of the parties.
Strategic therapists add a further injunction to of population malthus the two above, namely; #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). In a relationship each member tries to small business case find ways of being in a position to on the of population define or control the relationship (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Steinberg (1997: 84) suggests that this is true even in apparently one-sided power relationships, such as a complementary autocratic-abdicratic relationship: both parties seek to define and control the education is the our future relationship as one in an essay on the principle of population malthus, which their needs are met. The autocrat seeks to control and dominate, while the refflective abdicrat seeks to be dominated, abdicating control to the dominant partner. Each seeks to define the relationship to meet their specific needs. Becvar Becvar (1998: 222) suggest that manipulation is the inevitable consequence of being in a relationship in which each member seeks to control or define its nature. Communication patterns, the on the principle of population impossibility of not communicating/behaving (behaviour being seen as a way of communicating), paradoxical injunctions, and luther his thesis manipulation are important aspects of the strategic approach that Milan Group have incorporated into their theory and practice. The Milan Group found it important to consider the history of of population thomas, their clients; for them it was necessary to know and trees gift understand the clients#146; backgrounds and influences over time 3.1.2 . This is on the of population related to university of central florida the concern that strategic therapists direct to the conceptual frameworks of their clients. It is also related to Bateson#146;s 3.1.1 concept that body, mind, action, and person/object are all part of a circuit of relationship: the an essay principle thomas mind and trees gift nature essay its thoughts do not exist independently of the thomas body or of the people, actions and relationships that form the system in which an individual functions.
A problem is not a problem unless it is business case study defined as such (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). How a person or family defines a specific behaviour as problematic reflects the way they think, as well as how they relate to each other#146;s worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). However, the clients are not necessarily aware that there is more than one way of an essay on the principle of population thomas malthus, looking at marketing apple, the behaviour that they have defined as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224): they are not necessarily aware that people function in a multiverse rather than a universe. Strategic therapists believe it is important to reframe the problem in such a way that it is no longer perceived as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). The Milan Group saw that new meanings needed to an essay thomas be introduced into a family system in order to change behaviour and to reframe or re-write the business case study australia perception of principle malthus, a given behaviour so that it was not longer seen as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Meanings are defined by conceptual frameworks or worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Therefore the Milan Group needed to be able to understand the worldviews of their clients, and to do this they considered it vitally important to understand the history of their clients (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160, 260, op cit.) 3.1.2 . Verderber#146;s transactional model of small case study, communication states that meaning is created in a communication encounter (Steinberg 1997: 19, op cit.). An Essay Principle Thomas Malthus? The Milan Group did not regard their clients as phenomena #145;out there#146;, but rather as a therapeutic system of university florida thesis, family plus therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267). An Essay Principle Of Population Thomas? They used the therapeutic encounters to perturb the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267) so as to create new meanings or thought connections that would lead to new patterns of thought and apple apple iphone case behaviour (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) (i.e. to worldviews that did not admit the previous definition of the problem). It is crucial to note that the an essay principle Milan Group recognised that the different family members each reacted in their own different ways to therapeutic inventions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). This acknowledgement lead them, in a recursive way, back to acknowledging the importance of history, which placed them in an epistemological dilemma: a cybernetic, systemic view stressing the importance of the here-and-now versus the need for history (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260).
This led to their moving towards a multidimensional approach to both therapy and theory, and a determined effort not to become trapped in luther post, an ideological reification of systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 261). A significant way of avoiding this ideological or dogmatic trap was suggested by Cecchin and colleagues after the split up of the an essay principle thomas malthus original Milan Group. Did Martin Luther His Thesis? This is the viewing of models, hypotheses, and techniques as prejudices rather than unquestionable facts (Cecchin, Lane Ray 1994: 15). In terms of Verderber#146;s transactional model of an essay on the, communications, prejudices or beliefs are located within the process and the communicating system. This model stresses the importance of values, background, attitudes, and business case culture in the creation and negotiation of meaning (Steinberg 1995: 19). Thus, even though Cecchin and colleagues#146; epistemological position post-dates the original Milan Group, it can be seen to have developed out an essay on the principle of the strategic approach that was one of the jumping off points for the original group#146;s theoretical framework. Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) take the epistemological standpoint that there is no one truth and therefore that therapists should be aware there is no one truth to discover. Perceiving a model, hypothesis, or technique as a prejudice or bias, and being aware of multiverses rather than a universe, allows therapists to essay engage in true dialogue with clients and other therapists, rather than forcing a bias on principle thomas, to others (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). This does not mean that a prejudice or bias is not useful, but rather that therapists should be self-reflexive and should engage in open scrutiny and examination of the beliefs (Cecchin et al 1994: 15).
Further, Cecchin and study colleagues (1994: 15) stress the fact that any belief that is worth holding should not only be examined in this way, but that it should be contextually relevant. A belief only makes sense in context, and taking it out of context stops dialogue and can lead to the system (the family plus the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267 op cit. 3.2 ).) becoming stuck (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). The self-reflexivity that Cecchin and colleagues propose is naturally related to the broad principles of general systems theory. Framing the beliefs of the therapist in an essay on the principle of population, terms of prejudices that could interrupt the communication process within the system of family plus therapist is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. The linguistic element and indeterminacy. The Milan group focused on overcoming the tyranny of linguistics, which by its very nature keeps therapists and clients thinking in an intrapsychic, linear manner. They thus forced a different language on themselves as they sought to understand families in different ways. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) The Milan Group forced (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239 op cit.) themselves to find a new language that was open to difference and to a multiversal point of view.
Underpinning this new language (Becvar Becvar 1998 239 op cit.), which sought to apple marketing analysis iphone free the therapeutic system from entrenched meanings that led to systems becoming stuck, is an epistemology that derives from a deconstructionist philosophy. In second order cybernetics and in a transactional model of communications, reality is created or negotiated in the here-and-now 3.2 (Steinberg 1994: 19) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Husserl tried to achieve a theory of the relationship between a communicator#146;s words (written or spoken) and language in terms of differential signs (Honderich 1995: 201). Husserl also tried to systematise the here-and-now as presence: presence as #145;here#146; and presence as #145;now#146; being one and an essay principle of population thomas the same (Taylor 1992: 253). Deconstructionist philosopher Derrida coined the term différance in reaction to Husserl#146;s philosophy. For Derrida the present (time) and university of central florida what is present (spatially) is always becoming: it never #145;is#146;, there is no ultimate point of existence in space-time (Taylor 1992: 253). In other words, and an essay principle malthus consistent with second order cybernetics and Verderber#146;s model, reality and meaning are always becoming or being created; they do not exist out trees gift nature essay there waiting to be discovered. Equally, reality and meaning are never #145;real#146; or fixed in the past; the reality of the past is being created within people as they punctuate their present, becoming realities. An Essay On The Malthus? Also prominent in Derrida#146;s work is his examination of language and how language outwits philosophers (Honderich 1995: 188). Education Key To Our Future? To this end he emphasises puns, paradoxes, metaphors, ambiguity, indeterminacy, and the importance of play (Honderich 1995: 188).
The Milan Group also focussed on metaphor and paradox in their work and theory (Becvar Becvar 1998), and their first major publication was Paradox and Counterparadox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239). Strategic therapists 3.2 also used paradox, metaphor, and play as therapeutic tools (Becvar Becvar 1998: 229 ff.). There is a conceptual link between language, reality, meaning, and indeterminacy. Derrida emphasised indeterminacy in his approach to language and meaning, as well as in his approach to reality (Taylor 1992: 253, op cit.) Indeterminacy is, for Derrida, a concept that is of population malthus part of the différance : it is the relationship between oppositions that makes oppositions (or dichotomies) both simultaneously possible and impossible (Goosen 1994:101). Western traditional philosophy and trees essay psychology tends to be linear and dichotomous in its approach, characterised by oppositions (male-female, good-bad, right-wrong, people-God etc.) (Goosen 1994: 25). Of Population Thomas Malthus? Hegel#146;s philosophy was an attempt to create a union of these dichotomies (Goosen 1994: 25) and to heal the essay fragmentation he perceived in an essay on the thomas, modern life (Goosen 1994: 51). Derrida, however, proposed that modern life is indeterminate: there is no healing union or whole. This was recognised by the Milan Group, who assumed the position that they had to learn to small australia live with doubt, both about an essay on the of population thomas malthus theory and praxis (Cecchin et al 1994: 19).
With some similarity to Russell#146;s paradox 3.1.1 , Derrida suggests that the whole cannot exist except by virtue of its difference from the nonwhole (Goosen 1994: 101). Derrida#146;s view of indeterminacy or the différance suggests that if the whole is possible by did martin luther post his thesis, virtue of the existence of something other than itself (non-whole), then it ceases to be a whole, because it depends on something outside itself. On The Of Population Thomas Malthus? But Derrida also says that the whole must exist only because it is different from that which is refflective not whole (Goosen 1994: 101, op cit.). Therefore the différance both makes the whole possible and at the same time makes it impossible (Goosen 1994: 101). A systemic, cybernetic, post-modernist paradigm acknowledges the multiversal nature of an essay on the principle of population thomas malthus, realities as created within people, and that there is no reality that is not valid or meaningful for the person concerned (Maturana, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 82).
In other words, reality is indeterminate and non-deterministic. Reality cannot be said to nature essay exist as a construct #145;out there#146; that makes rules that determine how people think: rather, people determine their own reality. However, that reality is always changing: the reality of one person changes over time depending on how the environment punctuates that person#146;s view of reality, as well as how that person adjusts to and reacts to that punctuation. Principle Of Population Malthus? Most people tend to think in language rather than in apple analysis apple study, visual terms: people engage in on the of population malthus, internal dialogues in analysis report iphone case, words rather than pictures. Therefore it can be said that language is one of the factors that shapes the way people perceive reality. People socialised in a Western culture also tend to think in terms of dichotomies or oppositions (Goosen 1994: 25, op cit.). Derrida#146;s concept of the différance, while it does not try to resolve these dichotomies, opens the way to different ways of looking at language and behaviour and their impact on behaviour. It is important in terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy to look in between the extremes (e.g. An Essay Of Population Thomas Malthus? right and wrong, problem and solution) and to find a language that admits to the fleeting, becoming nature of reality. It s this writer#146;s opinion that the Milan Group#146;s concept of freeing people from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) is consistent with Derrida#146;s philosophy. However, there is a problem regarding indeterminacy concerning the definitions of #145;health#146; and small business australia #145;dysfunction#146;. These words imply the pejorative meanings of good and bad, which are dichotomous, and therefore not consistent with a philosophy that attempts to look #145;in between#146; extremes.
What the Milan Group#146;s approach then attempted to achieve was to help clients to reach a point where they could understand that there was more than one reality, and then to help them to re-write the language in which they conducted their own internal dialogues, according to their perception of reality and problems as defined by that reality (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). In other words, they tried to allow the family to look in between the dichotomies of right and principle malthus wrong, problem and solution, by rephrasing the way in which perceived problems were stated or expressed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). The Group did not just teach the clients this new language, they themselves consistently used it, contextualising problems in terms of of central florida thesis, social and family relationships (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241, 240). They also placed mental phenomena in the greater context of an essay principle, social phenomena #150; moving problems from an intrapsychic locus to a social locus. Post His Thesis? This is also a use of on the principle, language to re-write problems in refflective, terms of a different reality. A further tenet of the theory of the Milan Group was to use the word #145;game#146;. According to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 152) a game consists of an exchange of concrete bits of behaviour among subjects. The Milan Group found that the use of certain systemic terms was confusing, or limiting, being related to the biological origins of general systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). On The Thomas Malthus? However, by gift essay, using the on the thomas metaphor of games and game playing to describe to themselves how systems functioned, they found that the metaphors associated with games were better frames of reference for their research (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Game playing immediately evokes interhuman relations and interaction, which the business case Milan Group felt systemic terminology failed to do (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). For the Milan Group, the metaphors of principle thomas, games and education is the essay game playing were the point of entry into a new vocabulary, which related their theory to familiar, human reactions and interactions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 153).
It is of population impossible to ignore the when his thesis problems connected with auto-organization. (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264) (My italics) Multiversal or multi-dimensional thinking and behaviour must, according to the Milan Group, take into account the fact that systems organise themselves (auto-organisation) in order to function optimally (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). An Essay On The Of Population Thomas Malthus? Systems are limited as to what they can do by their structure, rather than by their environment (Becvar Becvar 1998: 79). Is The Our Future Essay? For example: plastics can be malleable, rigid, or brittle, and serve various different purposes, according various manufacturing processes. Plastic photochromatic lenses are used in lightweight optometric spectacles. However, the type of principle of population malthus, plastic used to make cheap, disposable food containers would not be able to serve the same function. The process and treatment (structure) of the basic element (plastic) limits the trees scope of the end product. So it is on the of population with systems: they are limited by their structure. How then can we account for change in systems in interaction with environment?
Systems are organised in certain ways, and within systems, sub-systems are also organised. Organisation is seen as the relationships between the parts of a system (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The structure of a system refers to the identity of key to essay, a system (a ball, a plastic box, a photochromatic lens, a family, a company) as well as to the relationships between the its parts (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). Principle Of Population Thomas? The environment of a system includes the gift essay system itself #150; the environment is both internal and external. When systems interact, the principle malthus context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Based on this type of understanding of the refflective essay functioning of systems, the Milan Group found it crucial to pay attention to individuals and their needs and goals, as well to the organisation of the families of which individuals were members (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). People tend to weigh up the on the principle of population thomas malthus pros and cons of their actions and how these might affect their families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). Essay? For example: a husband will discuss a new job, which entails a higher salary and more prestige with his wife, bearing in mind that the on the principle of population malthus family would have to relocate to a strange city or country, and essay how this move might negatively affect their children#146;s education and social lives. In this case the organisation of the family would dictate whether or not the an essay on the of population thomas children were involved in australia, the discussion, even if they were old enough to reasonably be expected to malthus wish to state an opinion or join in the discussion. In certain families the decision might be made without recourse to the children, and this could result in an unhappy teenager ruining away from essay, home, or abusing drugs or alcohol.
Other problems of organisation concern matters such as death. When a parent dies it can be expected that family members will mourn, which is a natural process. However, the family system would need to re-organise in order to continue to function optimally. For example: feuds could develop between children, or the father and principle the children as a united front, and an aunt, as to who should take over the maternal role in the case of the death of a mother (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). As the apple report apple Milan Group felt it necessary to pay attention to the important factor of the organisation, and by implication, to the structure of systems, it can be said that their approach in this regard is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES. The whole process of [Milan Group] therapy is carefully orchestrated to be consistent with the thomas malthus model on which it is built. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241) For the sake of clarity a brief tabular summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process will be presented before therapeutic interventions and strategies are discussed. Education Our Future? Figure One shows a traditional therapy setting where an observing team is involved, as was probably similar to the setting used by the Milan Group.
Table One: Summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process. Ten months, divided into ten sessions spaced at monthly intervals. Usually telephonic Therapist ties to maintain neutrality in order not to be seen by other family members as being in an essay on the principle, a coalition with the whoever made the business case australia initial call Questions phrased in social terms. Calls between sessions. Neutral stance of therapist maintained In case of emergency calls (e.g. suicide attempts) therapist assumes role of social control agent rather than that of therapist.
Therapist brings in other members of the therapeutic team Supervision Observation. Therapy session #150; five components. Team discusses the an essay on the principle malthus family Family interview with other team members observing Team discussion of the family and the session Conclusions of the team presented to the family with other team members observing Post-session where team sums up. Mutual agreement by therapist and family Respect for family#146;s decision to terminate Warning of possibly of relapse or doubt. (from Becvar Becvar 1998: 241 ff.) Figure One: Traditional family therapy setting with an observing team. 1 = Family therapy room. 2 = One-way mirror. 4 = Therapy team. 5 = Invisible boundary separating the team and the observing team. 6 = Observing team.
(from Cecchin et al 1994: 17) The Milan Group used the thesis word paradox as follows: #133;the specific tactics and maneuvres which are in apparent opposition to the goals of therapy, but are actually designed to achieve them (Rohrbaugh, in Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Paradoxes are therefore, in this context, such strategies as: prescribing the symptom, positively appraising the symptom, attaching positive connotations to symptoms, encouraging symptoms, or expressing fears that certain symptoms might disappear to quickly, and an essay principle of population malthus so on university of central florida thesis, (Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Families presented with a paradoxical request for both stability and on the of population thomas malthus change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Families would come to therapy complaining of a problem in one member, the identified patient, who in their opinion, needed to essay change, to #145;get better#146;. For the Milan Group, true to the tenets of an essay on the principle of population, general systems theory, and Bateson#146;s influence, change in one part of the system cannot occur without change in the system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 3.1.1 . Therapists would thus place family members into education a therapeutic double bind situation by not prescribing change, even though the context of therapy is a context where change is expected to take place (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
The use of placing families in on the thomas malthus, a therapeutic double bind was seen by Watzlawick and several strategic therapists as being a useful tool to gift nature manoeuvring and controlling the an essay on the of population thomas therapist-client relationship (Palazzoli et al 1989: 4 f.). The Milan Group found this use of the strategic paradox problematic, as it failed to take into account adequate relational explanations for gift essay, specific cases (Palazzoli et al 1989: 5). This is related to the epistemological divergence of the Milan Group from the Palo Alto Group, in that the Milan Group regarded the historical process as being of crucial importance 3.1.2. The question that the Milan Group found to be most significant was: Why is this particular member of this particular family exhibiting this particular symptom at this particular time ? (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6) (My italics). An Essay Principle Thomas Malthus? Instead of using the strategy of paradox or counterparadox as a means of controlling the therapeutic relationship, the essay Milan Group used it as an auxiliary technique, subordinate to their principal concern, which was to observe families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6). An Essay Principle Malthus? Palazzoli and colleagues go so far as to state that the centre of their focus of interest was families and not therapy (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7).
Further, the Milan Group began to experience the luther post phenomenon that, as time went by, paradoxical interventions were less powerful over time, or produced short-lived results (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9). Another interesting point is that paradoxes had to be tailored specifically to their explanation of why a specific symptom had developed. An Essay On The Principle Of Population Thomas Malthus? From the basis of these multiple factors, they used paradoxical interventions in order to provide families with explanations as to florida why certain symptoms had developed in specific members at thomas malthus, certain, specific times (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7). Paradoxes were used in specific ways according to the development of the marketing analysis report case study therapeutic process over time, according to an essay on the malthus the number of sessions 4.1 (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9 ff.) The Milan Group also stressed the refflective essay fact that paradoxical interventions, irrespective of how specific they might be, and in what positive terms they might be couched, or even how ingenious they were, would not work unless there was a strong need for principle of population thomas malthus, help from the family concerned (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). In cases where the therapist#146;s prestige (for the family concerned) was weak, or where the family was not strongly motivated to request help, paradoxical interventions could lead to the clients breaking off their relationship with the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). The process of circular questioning is did martin post his thesis a fundamental concept in the Milan model. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning aimed at transforming families#146; ways of thinking from linear, causal chains of thought into reciprocal, interdependent worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Important to of population malthus the concept of circular questioning is the idea that in small case australia, any relationship, all parties concerned must co-evolve (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). This is consistent with thinking of Macy, who sees the world in terms of conditionality, or mutual co-arising.
Conditionality, in Macy#146;s view, is a dynamic process inherent in the universe whereby everything is interrelated and is mutually affecting (Macy 1991: 40) (My italics). The Milan Group saw that many families presenting for therapy did not function according to the principle of mutual co-arising, or co-evolution, but rather one subsystem, coalition, or family member would be attempting to establish unilateral control over an essay principle of population malthus the family unit (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning, thus, was designed to punctuate relationships, re-defining them in apple report apple iphone study, such way as to show up reciprocity and promote co-evolution (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not only did the Milan Group use circular questioning to devise hypotheses (not necessarily true ones) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243) regarding possible connections and differences between relationships in families, or which could lead to on the of population thomas malthus further questions, they used this technique to continue to develop their basic theory 3.2 . Circular questioning and hypothesis formation formed a very important component of the feedback process between theory and praxis 3.1.2 , namely, that of understanding what was going on in a family. At this point it is important to note the cybernetic consistency of the emphasis on #145;what?#146; In cybernetics the refflective crucial emphasis is #145;what?#146; rather than #145;why?#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). It was necessary, in fact essential, for the therapist to be seen as neutral, particularly in regard to the process of circular questioning, as this process promotes hypotheses that could lead to further questions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Lateral, non-linear thinking was necessary as well, for the therapist to be able to follow the openings or responses that revealed themselves from the questions. For the Milan Group neutrality did not mean standing apart, or taking no position regarding any particular family member, but rather being multipositional (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). On The Of Population Malthus? The therapist had to be aligned to no one and to everyone in the family at the same time, as well as being non-judgemental and education our future non-moral (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243).
Neutrality, and an essay on the of population thomas the ability to think openly and non-linearly were therefore closely related, not only to each other, but also to marketing analysis iphone case study the therapeutic process and to the theory that underpinned it. The Milan Group also believed that neutrality implied support #150; each family member had to be supported in an essay on the thomas, a neutral or equal way. The theoretical construct underlying this concept was the view of a family as a whole, greater than the sum of its parts, rather than being seen as the sum of refflective, its independent parts or family members. Of Population Malthus? This is consistent with cybernetic thinking, in that systems are seen as non-summative. Neutrality and support together with the underlying principles of circular questioning allowed the families in therapy the necessary room and did martin freedom to explore alternative ways of on the of population thomas, thinking and behaving (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). The Milan Group put themselves into the position of not being outsiders (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244) of the education our future essay family in therapy.
This is epistemologically consistent with the paradigm of family and therapist constituting one system 3.2 . This is also cybernetically consistent, as it avoids the black box, or observer/observed concept. As insiders, the therapists should not have been seen as posing a threat by an essay on the principle of population thomas, the family. Being inside the system and being accepted as non-threatening can be seen as natural outcomes of the Milan Group#146;s dedication to neutrality and support 4.4.1 . However, one must ask the question as to apple analysis iphone whether or not the therapists were actually perceived in this way by all, or even some family members in principle thomas, all, or even some families. A further question arises as to the degree of integration in the family system. However, cybernetically speaking, these questions do provide answers themselves: no matter how much or how little the system was perturbed by being punctuated by the presence of the refflective therapist, some degree of re-organisation and adaptation must have taken place within the family in order to accommodate that perturbation. Working from the base of an essay on the malthus, being part of the family system, the Milan Group used to prescribe rituals that paradoxically appeared not to lead to refflective essay change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Further, the Milan Group worked according to the principle of meta-therapy #150; prescriptions at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). This is consistent with their multipositional approach 4.4.1 , and therefore also consistent with a cybernetic paradigm. Prescription of rituals had to be carried out very exactly and carefully (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Principle Of Population Thomas Malthus? It is education is the key to important to note at that this stage that prescribing rituals that apparently enforce the status quo in the family system is a paradoxical action. It is therefore also important to note again the problematic aspects of paradoxical interventions discovered by of population, the Milan Group 4.3 . Education Key To Our Future? Rituals were not intended as a permanent part of family life, but rather framed in terms of an essay on the principle of population malthus, experiments (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244).
Consistent with the neutral support that the Group believed was crucial to the therapeutic process, if a ritual failed, or even if the refflective essay family failed to carry it out, responsibility for failure was framed in terms of the therapist, rather than the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). The main purpose of the prescription of ritual was to point the family game in a different direction to its current course (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Further, the Group believed that by prescribing rituals, they could cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). A point of confusion arises at this stage for this writer, in an essay on the principle of population thomas, that the Milan Group also stated clearly that they needed to understand the history of apple marketing report iphone study, families 3.1.2 . It is of course possible that being able to open up the family game means of prescribed rituals allowed the Group to penetrated into the history of the family. However, for this writer, this issue raises a certain inconsistency in their approach.
Not only were rituals prescribed to be carried out away from the therapy room, but the whole process of therapy was in fact a ritual prescription in the ordered (ritualistic) way in which it was structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242) (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17 ff.) 4.1 . Rituals needed to of population malthus be tailored to specific circumstances, but included the following general outlines: secrecy, isolation, family talks or the reading of statements, keeping of analysis report apple, notebooks, or parental outings framed as disappearances (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245) (Palazzoli et al 1989). The Milan Group placed great emphasis on on the malthus, the idea that prescriptions functioned at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, 31). They also pointed out that a ritual such as secrecy was in itself paradoxical. If parents were told to attend a session or sessions without their children, and without telling the children or anybody else what had happened in therapy, the family was all aware of the study australia following: The directive to secrecy The fact that the an essay on the principle thomas session/s had taken place. Expectations were also aroused, not only in the parents, but also in apple marketing analysis report apple iphone case study, the children. Parents, even though adhering to an essay on the thomas the injunction to secrecy, and therefore while not actually saying anything about the session, would convey non-verbal messages to the family, thereby subtly introducing new patterns of communication into the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31). That the business case australia Milan Group recognised these important points as part of the injunction #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; 3.2 and thereafter deliberately continued to use the prescription method demonstrates their awareness of, and openness to, a systemic way of thinking. On The Principle Of Population Thomas? It is important to note the influence of communication science in the epistemology of the Milan Group 3.2 in this regard. Trees Nature? What was crucial to an essay on the thomas malthus the efficacy of the prescription method was the hierarchical arrangement of communications on a nonverbal level (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31).
That systems are hierarchically arranged (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77, op cit.) (McKay, in Visser et al 1995:284, op cit.) is not only a tenet of general systems theory, but also of the university florida structural therapists, who interpret the hierarchy in an essay on the principle thomas malthus, terms of certain specific sub-systems within the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These sub-systems are as follows: the spouse subsystem, the parental subsystem and the sibling subsystem (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Trees? These subsystems, according to the structural therapists, function according to hierarchical rules (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Communication in the form of negotiation of roles within and thomas malthus between the subsystems is a crucial factor (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Thus it can be seen that the Milan Group incorporated an is the key to essay emphasis on the hierarchical communication process into their theory and on the praxis. Refflective Essay? Further, by on the principle malthus, emphasising communication, hierarchy, and negotiation, the paradigm adopted by the Milan Group demonstrates cybernetic consistency. Mental phenomena as social phenomena. The members of the Milan group believed mental phenomena reflect social phenomena and what is called a mental problem is really a problem in social interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) Therapy and refflective theory were directed rather at patterns and an essay on the of population malthus interactions, instead of at the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Essay? Problems were thus reframed in social terms, rather than as being rooted within individuals. An example of this is discussed by Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 57 f.) An adolescent boy was brought to therapy, apparently because of his violent and addictive behaviour.
The discussion between the members of the team, in the absence of the family, seemed entirely negative: the team had allowed themselves to become bogged down in the negative trap laid for them by an essay on the principle of population thomas, the family (Cecchin et al 1994: 57). When the problem was reframed in a more positive, social light, it was possible to #145;write#146; a story that, instead of condemning the adolescent boy as a violent, anti-social individual, connected the family. What the team did was to develop the therapeutic #145;myth#146; or story that the adolescent boy was the embodiment of the education key to our future family#146;s way of trying to on the keep the memories of his grandfather alive (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). No longer was the boy seen as an individual with an individual problem, but rather, he was seen as an integral part of the family#146;s way of relating to each other, and to the deceased grandfather (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Part of the prescription in this family#146;s case was for the boy to find a way to marketing help his relatives to stop, or at least deal with, their worries about him (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Framing the prescription in relational terms, specific to the family concerned, is not only an essay on the thomas, consistent with the Milan Group#146;s approach to prescribing 4.5 but also showed consistency with the idea of mental phenomena as social phenomena. Is The Our Future Essay? The problem was reframed in social (relational) terms, as was the prescription #150; the boy had to involve himself in a specific way of relating to an essay on the of population thomas his mother, aunt, and grandmother (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). If mental phenomena are reframed as social or relational phenomena, then the gift nature therapeutic techniques and thomas interventions of the Milan Group should rest on this principle.
This proposition will now be subjected to a brief analysis to education our future essay test it. Testing the on the of population principle of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The Milan Group saw families and therapists as a system 3.2 . Systems are relational by definition 3.1.1 . Framing problems as being within the family, its structure and its communication patterns, as well as prescribing rituals that changed those communication patterns, is consistent with the concept of mental phenomena as social phenomena, as well as being systemically consistent. Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication 3.2 allows for internal structure and functioning of systems (communicator/s and small business study recipient/s) in the context of the communication encounter, where meaning is created and negotiated. Communication is a basic and essential social phenomenon: #145;one cannot not communicate#146; (Steinberg 1997: 17 ff.). Communication, seen in the light of an essay of population, Verderber#146;s model, is a systemic or cybernetic concept.
The method of refflective essay, circular questioning devised by the Milan Group can therefore be seen as a way of communicating within the an essay principle of population thomas malthus therapeutic system (comprising family and therapist). The recursive nature of circular questioning leads to further questions and the formation of hypotheses that not only education is the key to, function as feedback channels within the an essay malthus therapy situation, but also in the theoretical perspective 4.4. The context of education key to essay, therapy can be seen as one of social change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240, op cit.). Therapists, as part of the family system, do not hold themselves responsible for change or lack thereof (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). An Essay Principle Of Population Malthus? Paradoxically, therapy has lead to a change in the Group#146;s own thinking (from linear to gift systemic) (Palazzoli et al 1989) and that of their clients (at least in an essay on the of population malthus, some cases). Generally then, a recursive, relational pattern can be seen in the Milan Group#146;s approach to therapy, which is essay systemically consistent, and that is socially framed (i.e. framed in terms of relationships rather than individuals). The concept of change is related to the concept of an essay principle of population malthus, homeostasis or equilibrium.
In terms of of central thesis, social cybernetics, equilibrium is reached when the states of a system are constant (Hanken 1981: 51). The states of a system are referred to an essay on the malthus as the states related to the primary system, the actors ad the communication system (Hanken 1981: 51). The actors and the primary system are, in the case of therapy, the family members together with their total social and environmental context, including their ecology of ideas, as well, naturally, the therapist. The communication system is self-explanatory: the patterns of communication that the family uses. In a homeostatic state the university of central patterns of communication are fixed and maintain an on the of population thomas existing level of functioning for the family. Apple Case Study? The system can be described as stuck. Therapeutic interventions, such as circular questioning, or the perturbation of the an essay thomas communication patterns of the family that can occur by ritual prescription, could be said to unbalance the is the key to essay equilibrium of the system.
The system thus needs to adjust in order to an essay on the principle of population thomas maintain optimal functioning (the goal of education is the essay, systems). This brings about change. This recursive pattern, which was appreciated by the Milan Group, can thus be seen to be consistent with social cybernetic theory. Rituals are social phenomena: in an essay on the principle of population malthus, fact Girard (1989) says that rituals underlie significant social phenomena, such as religion. For example, Girard proposes the scapegoat myth as the analysis report apple case study origin of religion and an essay principle culture. Girard #145;s hypothetical event and ritual. It must be noted at this point that Girard places motivation for university of central florida thesis, rituals or re-enactments firmly on an intrapsychic basis, rather than locating his theory in a systemic paradigm. The reason for an essay on the principle of population malthus, introducing the discussion of Girard#146;s (linear/causal) version of how rituals arose is to present an alternative explanation of the social significance of ritual. Girard#146;s hypothesis and his theory of is the, ritual are variations of the many possible ways that suggest a deep conceptual connection between ritual and social interaction. Girard construed a hypothetical event in the distant past, and at this time, according to his theory, pre-human history made the transition into human history (Goosen 1994: 3).
Girard#146;s event is based on mimetic desire (Krüger, le Roux, Lubbe Goosen 1994: 104 f.) #150; two hominids both desired some object and started to fight over possession of it. Because the fight was caused by an essay on the of population, mimetic desire, rather than by the intrinsic value of the object that had triggered it, it became infectious and more people joined in, caught in a cycle of unconscious mimicry of the desires of marketing analysis report iphone case, those already involved. Eventually the on the thomas malthus fight became a full-scale battle (Goosen 1994: 4). To any society a full-scale battle is a catastrophic or threatening event. Education Our Future Essay? In Girard#146;s theory a threat to society is an important trigger of a scapegoating event (Girard 1989: 14, 43). It is at this stage that the scapegoat mechanism comes into focus, as according to on the thomas malthus Girard, during the course of the battle, all the combatants suddenly turned on one person, who was killed as a result.
Once this victim was killed, peace was restored (Goosen 1994: 4) (Krüger et al 1994: 105). Interestingly, for Girard, the scapegoat is education essay paradoxical, as the mechanism functions on an essay principle thomas, two levels: the level of human emotions (desire and the conflict that results from essay, it, and the level of resolution of an essay on the of population thomas, conflict) but also, and simultaneously, by apparently resolving disasters in the physical world. Rituals, according to Girard, originally developed out of re-enactments of the original hypothetical event. Education Key To Essay? The concept of ritual functions as a safety valve #150; it allows people to release the negative energy of on the of population, mimetic desire, instead of constantly bottling it up behind a screen of proscriptive law (Goosen 1994:10). It is almost as if for Girard, the function of ritual parallels the scapegoat mechanism, under controlled circumstances. Ritual allows for the crisis, allows for business study, a release of mimetic desire, and then heals society or restores order to society (Goosen 1994: 10).
Rituals are ways that people relate to other people, and if Girard (though controversial and sometimes simplistic in his analysis of complex phenomena, such as religion and on the principle thomas malthus human relationships) has a valid point, then rituals are the most fundamental of social phenomena, and are related directly to mental phenomena. This supports the university florida thesis Milan Group#146;s emphasis on prescription of rituals as a way of reframing mental phenomena as social phenomena. Milan Group originally devised a six-stage model of psychotic (dysfunctional) processes (Palazzoli et al 1989: 164 ff.). More recent work by members of the Group shows a movement towards the principle malthus development of a more open cognitive and therapeutic spirit (Palazzoli et al 1989: 220) and thereby an attitude of flexibility, which is essay less tied to dogma and theorising that the original model. This is an an essay on the malthus important development, as it could be said that the education is the key to our future original six-stage model was possibly too dogmatic. Palazzoli and an essay on the principle colleagues themselves express their concern with therapists tending to impose their own prejudices on families #150; in other words, it is university of central possible for therapists to slip into the pitfall of on the principle of population thomas, trying to make families fit their models. This factor is a possible contributing factor towards the business work of Cecchin and colleagues (Cecchin et al 1994), which deals with the pros and cons of the prejudices of therapists. The immediate problem with this approach is that by developing a model of dysfunction, the on the principle of population malthus Milan Group is, in effect, labelling a state of being as being other than normal. University? In order to be cybernetically consistent, there should be no definition of either health or dysfunction, as both are ways of functioning for the system/family concerned.
By labelling a family as dysfunctional, the Milan Group contradicted their philosophy (to be discussed in the next paragraph) of breaking the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.)3.3. The Milan Group sought to free themselves and an essay principle of population their clients from the tyranny of trees gift, linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) 3.3 . Part of the linguistic trap is an essay principle thomas malthus that people tend to reify labels. For example: fear and ignorance of schizophrenia, together with the diagnostic label of the disorder itself, leads people into a position where the label becomes the disorder. A very important implication of this is that misinformation, misperceptions, ignorance, and fear of the unknown (in respect of the disorder) can also become one of the causal factors in the development and maintenance of disorders or dysfunctional family functioning. The Milan Group tied to break the concept of the label as the disorder by is the key to, reframing the family problem in a recursive, circular way, rather than leaving families held in a linear mould.
Ultimately, families might begin to question their own underlying beliefs, which process might lead to behavioural changes (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242). If families could perceive problems in a different light, the problem as such ceased to be defined as a problem, or could at least cease to an essay dominate the family#146;s functioning. The concept of reframing dysfunction in such a way that if it could not be perceived as health, it could cease to command the family#146;s functioning, was a basic tenet of the Milan Group#146;s approach. Causality, seen cybernetically, is refflective a paradox. On The Of Population? Systems do what they do best in our future essay, order to function as a result of the way in which they are structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). There is an overlap of an essay thomas, function and of definition. For example: a family is defined in a certain way according to the culture in which it exists.
That definition forms a boundary. However, the boundary does not cause the family nor does the family cause the boundary (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). The definition and the structure of the family both need each other in order to form a reality that is valid for that family within a certain context. A change of university florida, context, such as a second marriage, birth, death or divorce, will involve restructuring of the family, and on the principle thomas malthus therefore, and of central thesis inseparably from that restructuring, redefinition of the family. Thomas Malthus? Cybernetic systems can be seen in one way as being goal directed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). They function in trees gift nature, order to do what they do, which is to an essay on the of population thomas exist (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Therefore, health or dysfunction are simply different aspects of functioning that maintain the system. When systems interact, the context is university of central florida changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Therefore change can be seen a process of structural reorganisation as a result of an essay principle of population thomas, internal pressures in relationship to when post perturbations or punctuations of environment (context) of the system (both internal and external environment) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78).
In this context health or dysfunction are not caused, not do they cause other aspects of family behaviour or functioning. Consistent with the above, the Milan Group did not take credit for progress towards health, nor did they encourage families to attribute such movements (particularly major headway towards health/optimal/more meaningful functioning) to the therapeutic process. Rather, the Milan Group saw changes as originating within families, and saw overt efforts to point out that therapeutic interventions and been instrumental in such changes as disqualify[ing]the family (Tomm, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). In other words, if a family moved towards health/optimal /more meaningful functioning, then it was due to the perturbations with the family system itself. This implies that health, for the Milan Group, could possibly have been defined as a meaningful and valid way of functioning according to a certain view of reality, unique to a specific family. Conversely, by an essay thomas malthus, the same argument, dysfunction could be seen as functioning that is not valid in terms of a family#146;s worldview. Dysfunction could be seen as values, attitudes, thoughts, or behaviours imposed on families from outside, rather than values, attitudes, thoughts and behaviours generated within the family for the purpose or goal of optimal functioning. Therefore, if this argument is teased out to the limit, it could be said that the Milan Group had no specific view of either health or dysfunction, other than that brought to therapy by families as presented as problems by the families themselves. Man is not a passive receiver of stimuli coming from an external world, but in a very concrete sense creates his universe. (Von Bertalanffy, in Macy 1991: 81). This statement contains one of the post central tenets of a cybernetic point of view.
With regard to this proposition, the Milan Group can be assessed as be consistent with a cybernetic perspective. They have a dynamic, relational approach to an essay of population malthus therapy and theory, and acknowledge, and in gift nature, fact, encourage a multiversal perspective in their clients and in their own thinking. Through the course of the above discussion, several references have been made to the systemic consistency of the Milan Group. These will briefly be summarised for the sake of clarity: Table Two: Summary of points of cybernetic consistency of the Milan Group. Points of cybernetic consistency. Bateson#146;s Influence 3.1.1. Change in one part of the system affects the whole system Circular epistemology Patterns of on the of population malthus, information and relationships Importance of context.
Importance of recursiveness and case study australia feedback Acknowledgement of an essay principle thomas, negative feedback Original acknowledgement of principles of equifinality and equipotentiality, but later moved away from this model and took history into account. Importance of communication patterns in a relational context Reframing Multiversal view points Multidimensional approach to therapy that developed out the their dilemma with cybernetic consistency concerning history. Finding a language/way of saying things that was consistent with a multiversal worldview No one truth or healing whole/union Replace dichotomies with multiversal perspective. Points of essay, cybernetic consistency. Acknowledging problems that might arise as a result of structural/organisational changes within family systems. Recursive method that allows for feedback Principle of mutual co-arising or co-evolving Focus on #145;What? rather than #145;Why?#146; Principle of the an essay thomas malthus non-summative nature of systems Room to essay find alternative ways of thinking and behaving. No black box metaphor #150; therapist and family as one system Metatherapy Multiple levels of on the of population thomas, functioning Perturbations of education is the key to, communication patterns in families Negotiation of on the thomas malthus, meanings between subsystems.
Mental phenomena as seated in relationships rather than intrapsychically. Freedom from labelling #150; #145;the map is not the territory#146; Changes originating within families and not attributed to education key to the therapeutic process. In footnotes to the above table, a few references have been made to some dimensions of the Milan Group#146;s approach that are not cybernetically consistent, so these will not be discussed again in detail. Problematic to a cybernetic paradigm are however, the concepts of health and dysfunction (Becvar Becvar 1998 247). According to second order cybernetics, systems function the on the principle of population way they function (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247), and punctuating a difference as being healthy or not healthy is therefore inconsistent in education key to our future essay, cybernetic terms. Further, the an essay on the principle of population Milan Group focused on breaking out of linguistic traps.
For most people the term dysfunctional conveys the value judgement of #145;bad#146;, and equally, the term healthy implies a value judgement of #145;good#146;. Apart from key to essay, being inconsistent cybernetically, these concepts, looked at in this way, are therefore also inconsistent with the Group#146;s expressed ideal of breaking out of linguistic traps. There is also a problem with defining or punctuating states of being as either healthy or dysfunctional as far as indeterminacy is concerned. In terms of an essay on the principle thomas malthus, Derrida#146;s philosophy 3.3 , health and dysfunction are dichotomous opposites. Small Business Australia? Therefore, to punctuate states of being as being either healthy or dysfunctional is to fail to thomas look for the reality in between these opposites. However, in Derrida#146;s terms, health and dysfunction, as opposites, are brought into when post being by the existence of that which falls between them #150; the meaning of health is created by the meaning of dysfunction. It could then be said that it is on the malthus necessary to have a concept of when luther post, health in order to have a concept of dysfunction, or vice versa, and that the reality of both co-arises out of the creation or negotiation of their respective meanings. Looked at in this way, it would be cybernetically consistent to punctuate a difference between health and on the principle of population malthus dysfunction. Regarding the prescription of rituals 4.5 , this writer pointed out an inconsistency, or point of confusion in the discussion, above. Rituals were designed to cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, op cit.).
The Milan Group, were, however, also concerned with the case history and background of their clients, which they needed to understand 3.1.2 . The quotation implies that the Milan Group applied this therapeutic technique according to the principles of equipotentiality and equifinality, but stated the opposite in their theory. Connected to this point is the on the of population issue of history 3.1.2 , which is clearly inconsistent with a cybernetic worldview. However, despite the points discussed as being inconsistent with a cybernetic paradigm, the approach of the Milan Group demonstrates a number of cybernetically consistent points 6.1 . Furthermore, after engaging with the epistemology and praxis of the Group during this discussion, a sense of pragmatic, practical functionalism emerges. If it is cybernetically consistent to say that systems do best what the university of central florida thesis do best in order to exist, and if the Group#146;s approach works in on the principle thomas malthus, therapy, then it could be implied that this approach is a paradigm for a functional system. Finally, to have a theory or epistemology at all can be seen as being cybernetically inconsistent, as this implies a rigid framework, and one point of view, rather than a multiversal viewpoint. However, any therapeutic model must encounter this type of paradox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Barlow, D H; Durand, V M. 1995.
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Updated on May 1, 2015. Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.
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He published a series of an essay on the principle thomas malthus essays called Brave New World: Revisited which dealt with the problems in Brave New World. Towards the refflective end of his life, Huxley studied eastern religions. GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive essay focuses on a person, place, memory, experience or an object. An Essay On The Principle Of Population Thomas Malthus. First, the exact thing that is to be described must be identified. REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason. ability to use language is defining part of human nature. It is believed that language is a “key to identity and to social acceptance”.
In his 1979 essay , the African American writer James Baldwin wrote his beliefs about language, part of what he wrote was that“…language is marketing report apple iphone also a political instrument. Essay On The N- Word During a televised dog show one of the judges, an older woman, referred to a competing dog as a ‘bitch’. Spontaneously I flinched, frowned and then laughed out loud at myself. The reaction was due to hearing for the first time in years the word being used in its proper context. ENG101 November 11, 2014 Descriptive Essay Beloved Vietnam China has its wall, Egypt has its pyramids, and Italy has its colosseum. What do these have in common? They’re all considered, by principle thomas malthus society, to be some of the refflective essay greatest wonders of the world. These sites are the bodies of vacation decision.
soldiers’ responsibility to follow the on the of population malthus guidelines set down by the Army regulations, NCOs, and refflective, officers appointed over them. During the course of this essay I will be going on a in depth explanation of the on the thomas guidelines covering appearance, importance of rank structure, punctuality, and discipline. The importance.
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An Essay on the Principle of Population, by Thomas Malthus
campo essay It is not unusual, after I've given a poetry reading, for some impossibly young writer from the audience to remark over the post-literary pretzels and Diet Coke, Wow, your stuff is really depressing. One especially unkind reviewer of my books proclaimedin a similar but perhaps more impatiently dire veinBad things happen in an essay Rafael Campo's poems. Essay. Coming from an essay on the of population thomas a fellow poetand none of us are generally associated with boundless joy, or even middling cheerfulnesshis indictment seemed inordinately cruel. Even my devoted spouse counsels me, after reading my latest villanelle about luther post, botulism or ode to principle of population malthus, schizophrenia, Honey, maybe you should think about florida, lightening things up a bit. Try as I might to take all of this concern to heart, to see butterflies or snowflakes or flowers as more suitable, or at least less foreboding, objects of literary address, I keep finding myself drawn to an essay on the principle thomas, write about illness. Like anyone, I despise the kind of person who slows down his car at the sight of a roadside accident, craning his neck in case the hopes of on the of population thomas malthus, glimpsing some awful carnage. I hate television shows like House and trees nature essay Gray's Anatomy for making a ludicrous spectacle of illness. I can't stand it when innocent family members solicit advice about their hypertension or cholesterol, because it seems to me there is an essay principle, so much in the world that is more interesting to discuss; I grew impatient even with my endearing grandmother, when she was still alive and would ask me my advice about nature essay, her blood sugar.
When I feel I'm about to fall ill myself from such constant noxious exposures, I dig out my well-worn copy of on the of population thomas malthus, Susan Sontag's scathingly sober Illness as Metaphor . My point is that illness is not a metaphor, and the most truthful way of regarding illnessand the refflective healthiest way of an essay of population malthus, being illis the one most purified of, most resistant to, metaphoric thinking, Sontag says, and trees gift I think Take that , Sharon Olds! The romantic view is that illness exacerbates consciousness, she goes on to say, and I crow, Take that , Franz Wright! What a relief it is to understand illness for what it really ismatter-of-fact pathophysiology; a boring, unpleasant and decidedly non-revelatory experience. Illness is a problem for the human imagination only insomuch as we might seek dispassionately scientific methods to cure it while we avoid the inevitably destructive pressures it exerts on an essay principle thomas our fragile psyches. Of course, the next morning always comes and I find myself in my clinic again, the exam room speaking aloud in all of its blatant metaphorsthe huge clock above where my patients sit implacably measuring lifetimes; the space itself narrow and compressed as a sonnetand immediately I'm back to thinking about writing. Soon enough, my patients start to marketing analysis apple iphone, arrive, and an essay principle malthus the way they want me to understand what they are feeling only immerses me more deeply in language's compelling alchemy: The pain is like a cold, bitter wind blowing through my womb, murmurs a young infertile woman from Guatemala with what I have diagnosed much less eloquently as chronic pelvic pain. Please, doctor, can you heal me?
I regard her from across the desk, and feel grateful for university of central, the computer terminal more immediately in front of me, which allows me to type a little medical jargon into principle of population thomas, my note before having to actually speak to her. Small. Send her for an exploratory laparoscopy, growls Susan Sontag in the back of my mind, but she's already had that procedure, along with several ultrasounds and pap smears, innumerable blood and urine tests, a hysterosalpingogram, a colonoscopy, and a trial (ironically) of birth control pills. We have had this conversation before, which I realize is another way of saying we are together part of a narrative, a story. An Essay Principle Malthus. A story in which irony matters, in study which understanding metaphormight her pain be a wordless expression of her deep sadness at her inability to have a child, or perhaps the consequence of an essay on the of population thomas malthus, some trauma she has not disclosed? seems to have some irrefutable value. Now, I am thinking again about writing, but not a prescription for the pain medication she always refuses; instead, I am thinking about writing a poem like Sharon Olds. I am thinking about the metal speculum clattering in the sink while she sobbed softly after I performed her last pap smear, as if it were trying to reiterate something about coldness and bitterness, or what we hear and can't hear, or pain and education essay abjection. Perhaps something about this young woman reminds me of my grandmother, herself an an essay on the thomas incurableand incurably hopefulimmigrant, which only amplifies my narrative impulse.
After all, it was my grandmother who first inspired in me a love of stories. Her words were all she could give me of our homeland, Cuba, that exotic and forbidden place, her own unspeakably painful void. My grandmother was afflicted with what seemed an unfair burden of illnesses. Her treatments for her ailments seemed just as varied as the ailments themselves, from the pills she dutifully swallowed each morningsome prescribed to her by doctors, some dispensed out of her friends' personal hoardsto the prayers she recited before her own tiny shrine to trees nature, the Virgin Mary; from the principle of population thomas malthus magical, strange-smelling potajes she brewed with roots and herbs that can't be found in education is the key to American supermarkets, to an essay on the principle thomas malthus, the sheer will to endure that seemed manifest in her meticulously kept apartment and her constant humming to herself of old Cuban songs. Some of small business case, her illnesses were familiar ones, like diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis; others were conditions that were utterly untranslatable from Spanish to English, like the terrible patatú , some kind of principle, debilitating nervous attack, or the more insidious but equally awful retortero , which could afflict her for weeks, or even months. Through her experiences, I saw firsthand just how indistinct could be the boundary between the tersely biomedical and the wildly superstitious: she took gold for is the key to our future, her painful joints that the rheumatologist prescribed, the same doctor who ridiculed her use of an essay on the of population thomas malthus, traditional Cuban remedies. As an impressionable child, I marveled at the idea of this precious metal somehow gilding my grandmother from within, protecting her joints from damage by the power of small business case, our wonder at it. Decades later, when she finally died of kidney failure induced by the toxicity of what proved to be a worthless treatment for her, I learned the meaning of irony for the first time. If her rheumatologist in his starched white coat could have been so wrong about one form of an essay on the of population, treatment, maybe he was just as mistaken about the mystical powers of what was prescribed by the curanderos , whom he regarded as ignorant savages. Maybe Sontag's premise that illness is mere pathophysiology, to be explicated only biomedically, is not an entirely correct notion either; perhaps illness is a kind of muse, luring us to acts of the imagination and gestures of language that have positive effects on our hearts and business study minds.
Song delighted my grandmother, and an essay principle thomas malthus prayer consoled her; her joints seemed to move freely again when she danced a merengue, or when she knelt her large form before la virgencita . No wonder I have come to believe in the power of the imagination if not to cure, then to is the our future essay, heal. Yet still I resist the on the of population thomas malthus urge to write. I scold myself for my prurience. Essay. I fret about of population malthus, whether I might be too glib or too sentimental. I agonize over marketing analysis iphone my stake in the telling.
Illness may be a muse, but it is a particularly vexing one. I suppose at the root of any act of narrative lies some inchoate desire to bear witness, to say I was there, to join with others in a signal experience. When that signal experience is illness, this empathetic impulse seems all the more overpowering, as if some deep survival instinct were triggered, as if we might share in the discovery of some profound knowledge we need to live. If the principle of population thomas malthus sensational can thus give way to wisdomeven as we are shocked, we are at refflective the same time comfortedso too can sentiment be supplanted by on the principle of population malthus genuine emotion. Surely we must feel moved by the plight of illness, lest we fall into one of the very traps of specious narrative that Sontag bemoanswhen illness strikes, it is not because we are guilty or deserve it, and our defenselessness stirs in us the compassion we feel for the innocent, the is the key to essay underdog, the fighter. How much I want to help my Guatemalan patient; how acutely did I wish I could alleviate my grandmother's pain! When I write about them now, I recall the an essay principle malthus joke in my heavily seasoned Latino-Italian family that if you're not screaming or crying when you say something then you don't really mean it, so I must defeat my inborn tendency to university, exaggerate or to pity, but still I must write, in order to restore, to an essay principle of population thomas malthus, make sense, to heal. And to be restored and healed myselfyes, I must also admit my complicity in these stories, that I cannot subtract myself completely from them. Sometimes I discover that I'm really writing about myself, my own arrogance or vulnerability or alienation, and I wonder if what feels like selfishness is at the same time an expression of the familiar wish to identify with another person, to affirm that I'm no different, that I'm equally as flawed and conflicted and study australia needy as any of us is. Illness is, after all, one of the few truly universal human experiences; to write in response to it necessarily demands active participation, not the an essay principle thomas kind of florida thesis, objective, soulless distancing so many doctors practice, and teach their trainees to practice. To write about illness, to heed this terrible muse, is to reject distancing and to embrace empathy, for which there is no reward or claim on on the thomas malthus greatness other than perhaps the perverse joy of study australia, recognizing oneself as susceptible to the same foibles and an essay principle of population thomas neuroses.
To write explicitly about one's own illnesses risks an even worse self-indulgencebunion surgery and when luther post hemorrhoids, no matter how distressing to the otherwise healthy poet, simply cannot make for scintillating verse. On the other hand, to write about another's suffering can seem entirely presumptuous, as if it were somehow possible to re-create on an essay principle thomas malthus the expanse of the clean, neat white page the image an anorexic teenager sees of herself in her bathroom mirror that leads her to induce vomitingor worse, that somehow, in the earnest imaginative quest for marketing analysis report iphone, that universal balm that heals, anorexia becomes indistinguishable from anemia, AIDS and ALS and AML interchangeable. While it's true that the screams of of population thomas, pain coming from the of central room in the ER where a woman is losing her baby are no more or less heart-wrenching than those from the on the principle thomas woman in the next room who is withdrawing from heroin, the specific details of each story must matter just as much as the ultimately indescribable agony they share. We do not know our own souls, let alone the souls of did martin his thesis, others, declared Virginia Woolf, in her indelibly humane essay On Being Ill; though she brilliantly defended the notion of illness as a motive for writing, she too was forced to consider our myriad limitations as our own bodies' reporters. Yet we must rely on these faulty accounts, perhaps taking additional solace in their imperfections, because to do without them would be injurious to an essay principle, the soul, and to not forgive them would leave us utterly hopeless.
The true cynic who exceeds Sontag in her disdain for our silly superstitions and is the our future inane hopes will complain that, regardless of an essay on the of population thomas, who gets to tell the story of illness, the patient still feels like crap and wants to be either cured or healed, whichever will bring relief soonest and, in these days of limited resources, for the cheapest price. Meaning for him equals results, plain and is the our future simple. An Essay Of Population Thomas. Illness isn't a fanciful narrative to him, nor is it the intellectual intrigue of biology gone awry. It is merely some skilled technician's job to of central florida, fix before moving on to the next illness, a transaction about which no one need care, an occasion for an essay principle malthus, money to change hands for services rendered as efficiently as possible. Stendahl and Sontag, Olds and Woolf mean next to when luther, nothing to himand even less so as the surgeon stands poised to make his first cut, or as the oncologist starts the chemotherapy drip. On The Thomas Malthus. He refuses to consider that even in the immediacy of some critical therapeutic act, he is hemorrhaging his unspoken words. By summarily stapling shut his figurative wounds, he is is the key to, compromising his best chance at survival by denying himself access to all the possible modalities by which the physician might intervene. His is an expression, perhaps, of the same overconfidence in the scientific model of illness that Sontag glorified.
While Sontag was right to denounce the negative metaphors we concoct out of the same ingredients my grandmother used in an essay on the thomas malthus her more humane and optimistic responses to her illnessesthanks to education key to our future, Sontag, as well as to other writers she might have disparaged, like Sharon Olds and principle thomas Franz Wright (or Mark Doty and is the key to our future essay Lucia Perillo, or Marilyn Hacker and Audre Lorde, or Alicia Ostriker and Adrienne Rich), we simply can no longer view illnesses like cancer and thomas malthus AIDS as being caused by our fears and our anxietieswe just as adamantly must reject a conception of illness that relies entirely on biomedical definitions. I am reminded of one of my residents, who was called to run a code on a patient of hers in did martin post the hospital just as she was about to of population malthus, leave for the day and enjoy some time with her young family at when did martin post his thesis home. She had followed all the an essay on the principle biomedical protocols and university algorithms perfectly, barking orders to the nurses and interns with all the confidence she could muster; however, like most end-of-life interventions in the hospital, this one too proved futile, and the patient died. Principle Of Population Malthus. It was only small case, weeks later, when she had the chance to write about the experience (in a poem she created for a reflective writing group that is now part of the residency curriculum in our hospital) did she feel she could do justice to the entire experience, aspects of which she purposefully had shut out at the bedside in the perceived acuity of the situation. Perhaps most salient of all that she had sacrificed to the biomedical exigencies of the moment was the tuning out on the principle, of the family who were present in university florida the room; she wished she hadn't ignored them, but instead had allowed them to stop her before a full thirty minutes had passed, when it was already amply clear to them that their mother was dead. It is an essay of population, precisely situations like these that have so long been cited by medical educators as a primary reason for small case study, teaching distancing to of population, medical trainees: to be able to trees nature, function in an emergency, one cannot regard that patient as a whole person, but rather must focus on the malignant arrhythmia or the life-threatening electrolyte imbalance in malthus order to when luther, implement the appropriate technologies and in turn save life at all cost.
Narrative has no place here, many would argue; we must not be distracted by the color of her nail polish, or that the slack blood pressure cuff hung down around her wrist like some horrible bracelet, or the wails of her children, all details my resident had absorbed in spite of her conscious effort not to register them. Yet, if we begin to on the of population malthus, enlarge the context, as narrative asks that we do, if we start to consider that our actions have impact on others who have their own relationship with the education is the our future essay person we see exclusively as a patient (and not as a mother, as her children do; not as a suffering soul, as the chaplain does), we might act differently. On The Principle Of Population Malthus. We might move to comfort the patient and to protect her dignity in trees her last minutes on an essay earth; we might seek to console her children as they face a tremendous loss; we might pray together with the chaplain in the hopes that she not die without the last rites that are soul-saving in refflective essay many religious traditions. Whether storytelling has a place here is worth considering very deeply; it certainly proved indispensable after the an essay of population thomas fact, and the poem written by the resident, who failed to resuscitate her patient in small australia the hospital, perhaps has done her an even greater service, by immortalizing her. None of us lives forever. Many of on the of population malthus, us might have our lives prolonged by biomedical interventions whose financial costs are exorbitant; too infrequently do we question the toll they also exact on our humanity.
The fantasies about what causes illness that Sontag railed against (cancer results from marketing analysis apple study repressed anger, AIDS is a punishment from God) have been replaced by even more deluded fantasies that science somehow can prevent death. The only an essay on the of population, way we can defy our own mortality is through acts of the thesis imagination, by creating the stories and sculptures and paintings and poems that will outlast us, but that will always be animated by on the principle thomas our will to have created them. Even our greatest scientific discoveries can be understood in trees gift nature this way: they are not truly ends in themselves, by which we can ever hope to thomas malthus, explicate away our suffering, but are rather part of the same process of dreaming and desiring, wishing and wondering. When I visited my grandmother in the hospital in education key to our future essay the last weeks before she died, I cried for a while into her shoulder. But by then I was a young doctor, so soon I headed for the nurses' station and pored over her hospital chart while she lay propped up in her bed, the glass and an essay on the principle of population malthus metal ICU like the internal workings of some incomprehensible machine designed for time travel. Countless hours and hundreds of thousands of dollars had gone into is the key to essay, the attempt to transform me from a long-term financial burden on an essay on the my parents to someone with a respectable, moneymaking career. She was in heart failure despite being on dialysis, and small study I tried desperately to understand her fluid imbalances. Her I's and O's were dutifully tabulated, in a sequence that suggested a code whose rules I might decipher. In my exasperation, I looked up from the record of her gradual demise, and on the of population thomas caught a glimpse of her as she fingered her rosary, praying to herself with a peaceful smile on her face, taking her own measure of trees nature essay, her receding life.
When I write about her now, all the data that seemed so important then have faded to insignificancebut it is that one cherished detail in my memory, this one little story, that always makes her come alive to me again.